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Embedded Mechatronic Systems 1 Analysis of Failures, Predictive Reliability by Abdelkhalak El Hami and Philippe Pougnet | PDF Free Download.
Electronics are increasingly used in controlled and embedded mechanical systems. This leads to new mechatronics devices that are lighter, smaller, and use less energy.
However, this mechatronics approach, which enables technological breakthroughs, must take into account sometimes contradictory constraints such as lead-time to market and cost savings.
Consequently, implementing a mechatronic device and mastering its reliability are not always entirely synchronized processes. For instance, this is the case for systems that function in harsh environments or in operating conditions that cause failures.
Indeed, when the root causes of such defects are not understood, they can be more difficult to control. This book attempts to respond to these problems.
It is intended for stakeholders in the field of embedded mechatronics so that they can reduce the industrial and financial risks linked to operational defects. This book presents a method to develop mechatronics products where reliability is an ongoing process starting in the initial product design stages.
It is based on understanding the failure mechanisms in mechatronic systems. These failure mechanisms are modeled to simulate the consequences and experiments are carried out to optimize the numerical approach.
The simulation helps to reduce the time required to anticipate the causes of these failures. The experiments help to refine the models which represent the systems studied.
This book is the result of collaborative research activities between private (big, intermediate, and small businesses) and public sector agents (universities and engineering schools).
The orientations of this research were initiated by the Mechatronics Strategic Branch of the Mov’eo competitive cluster (Domaine d’Action Stratégique) to meet the need to have reliable mechatronic systems.
This book is aimed at engineers and researchers working in the mechatronics industry and Masters or Ph.D. students looking to specialize in experimental investigations, experimental characterization of physical or chemical stresses, failure analysis, and failure mechanism modeling to simulate the consequences of causes of failure and who want to use statistics to assess reliability. These subjects match the needs of the mechatronics industry.
This book is divided into two volumes. This volume presents the statistical approach for optimizing designs for reliability and the experimental approach for characterizing the evolution of mechatronic systems in operation.
Volume 2 [ELH 19] looks at trials and multi-physical modeling of defects which show weaknesses in design and the creation of meta-models for optimizing designs. Chapter 1 describes the reliability-driven design methodology by building on a case study.
The first step in this approach is to define the reliability targets, the risks of failure due to architectural innovations or new conditions of use, and then to evaluate the predictive reliability of the electronics.
The objectives of the following steps are to identify the components that may fail in the life profile conditions and determine the distribution of the stresses causing these failures.
In order to understand the potential failure mechanisms, experimental characterizations of the effects of mechanical, thermal, or electromagnetic stresses are carried out on a few prototypes, and tests are designed to provoke failures.
Consecutive failure analysis helps to develop failure mechanism models. However, these multi-physical models are based on approximations and uncertainties. They have to be validated before being used to simulate the failures in the conditions of the life profile.
Using statistical approaches, the multi-physical failure models can take into account the variability of loads of the life profile as well as the variability of the manufacturing process. The design is then optimized by adjusting the architecture parameters that improve reliability.
Chapter 2 describes the Spectroscopic Ellipsometry (SE) method. This method is often used in microelectronics to study semiconductors, polymer-based protective coatings, metals, or other types of meta-materials.
SE is applied here to study the effect of environmental stresses on the quality of surfaces and interfaces of sintered silver materials and polymers of a mechatronic power module.
A study of the effect of temperature in dry and wet environments is presented and discussed in terms of optical properties.
Chapter 3 describes an approach determining emissions radiated from microwave structures found in metallic cavities.
This approach is based on near-field cartographies and on a model of the emissions radiated from the open structure by a network of dipoles.
Chapter 4 presents the experimental study of the static and dynamic deformations of the components and electronic equipment, using optical techniques of coherent light based on full-field methods.
The applied interferometric and non-interferometric techniques lead to complementary results in terms of temporal and spatial resolution as well as measuring sensitivity.
These results have been obtained by applying the techniques of Speckle Interferometry (SI) to temporal integration, Moiré Projection (MP), and Structured Light (SL) to study the phenomena related to the thermomechanical and vibratory behavior of the embedded electronic devices.
Chapter 5 describes a method of characterizing the robustness of switching transistors relative to overvoltage electrical stresses. In this approach, the phenomena of electrostatic discharge (ESD) are reproduced.
Chapter 6 focuses on the study of the reliability and the robustness of radiofrequency power transistors (RF) used in power amplifier electronic boards (HPA: High Power Amplifier). These transistors are the base elements of the (Tx) transmission modules for radar applications.
The effects of radiated electromagnetic waves, RF signals, and thermal loads on Gallium Nitride (GaN) RF transistors are studied.
Chapter 7 presents a method for measuring temperature and micro-displacement on high-frequency components used in telecommunications and radars. The simultaneity of the measurements of the temperature and expansion parameters represents the originality of this method.
This approach makes it possible to calculate the thermal resistance of an electronic component and study how this resistance changes during the life of the component. Chapter 8 presents the FIDES predictive reliability handbook.
FIDES approach is based on defining the life profile and provides a prediction of the failure rate of mechatronic systems. FIDES is frequently updated and follows the changes in electronic technology. FIDES is here applied to an automotive mechatronic system.
Chapter 9 presents a new algorithm for optimizing retrieval search for multi-objective optimization named BSAMO. This, evolutionary algorithm (EA) solves real-valued numerical optimization problems.
EAs are stochastic research algorithms widely used to solve non-linear, non-differentiable complex numerical optimization problems. In order to test its performance, this algorithm is applied to a well-known multi-objective case study.
The FSI is optimized, using a partitioned coupling procedure. This method is tested on a 3D wing subjected to aerodynamic loads. The Pareto solutions obtained are presented and compared to those of the non-dominated sorting genetic algorithm II (NSGA-II).
The numerical results demonstrate the efficiency of BSAMO and its ability to solve real-world multi-physics problems.
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