Sustainable Micro Irrigation Design Systems for Agricultural Trial Crops
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Sustainable Micro Irrigation Design Systems for Agricultural Trial Crops

Sustainable Micro Irrigation Design Systems for Agricultural Trial Crops Volume 2 Methods and Practices Edited by Megh R. Goyal, Ph.D., PE, and P. Panigrahi, Ph.D. | PDF Free Download.

Sustainable Micro Irrigation Design Systems Contents


Preface to Sustainable Micro Irrigation Design Systems 

Due to increased agricultural production, irrigated land has increased in the arid and subhumid zones around the world.

Agriculture has started to compete for water use with industries, municipalities, and other sectors.

This increasing demand along with increases in water and energy costs have made it necessary to develop new technologies for the adequate management of water.

The intelligent use of water for crops requires understanding of evapotranspiration processes and use of efficient irrigation methods.

Micro irrigation is sustainable and is one of the best management practices. I attended 17th Punjab Science Congress on February 14–16, 2014, at Punjab Technical University in Jalandhar, India.

I was shocked to know that the underground water table has lowered to a critical level in Punjab. My father-in-law in Dhuri told me that his family bought 0.10 acres of land in the city for US $100.00 in 1942 because the water table was at 2 feet depth.

In 2012, it was sold for US $233,800 because the water table had dropped to greater than 100 feet. This has been due to luxury use of water by wheat-paddy farmers, he said. The water crisis is similar in other countries, including Puerto Rico, where I live.

We can, therefore, conclude that the problem of water scarcity is rampant globally, creating the urgent need for water conservation.

The use of micro irrigation systems is expected to result in water savings and increased crop yields in terms of volume and quality. Our planet will not have enough potable water for a population of >10 billion persons in 2115.

The situation will be further complicated by multiple factors that will be adversely affected by global warming.

The United Nations states that Water scarcity already affects every continent. Around 1.2 billion people, or almost one-fifth of the world's population, live in areas of physical scarcity, and 500 million people are approaching this situation.

Another 1.6 billion people, or almost one quarter of the world's population, face economic water shortage (where countries lack the necessary infrastructure to take water from rivers and aquifers).

Water scarcity is among the main problems to be faced by many societies and the World in the XXIst century.

Water use has been growing at more than twice the rate of population increase in the last century, and, although there is no global water scarcity as such, an increasing number of regions are chronically short of water.

Water scarcity is both a natural and a human-made phenomenon. There is enough freshwater on the planet for seven billion people but it is distributed unevenly and too much of it is wasted, polluted and unsustainably managed.

(http://www. Every day there news on the importance of micro irrigation appear all around the world indicating that government agencies at central/state/local level, research and educational institutions, industry, sellers, and others are aware of the urgent need to adopt micro irrigation technology that can have an irrigation efficiency of up to 90% compared to 30–40% for the conventional irrigation systems.

It is important to adopt a suitable drip irrigation system to grow agricultural crops, space plants, forest trees, landscape plants and shrubs, and garden plants because all vegetation require different water intake.

For better results, one should plan and install proper irrigation systems for the land under consideration. Micro irrigation is one of the most efficient watering methods, as it can save water and give better quality of products.

The trickle irrigation system can be designed and adapted to varying irrigation needs for arid, semiarid and humid regions; a wide range of crops; and different climatic and soil conditions. Drip irrigation can save our planet from the water scarcity.

The trickle irrigation design must be carried out by a professionally registered engineer who is qualified and has the necessary knowledge. This is not job for a layperson.

Investment in the design phase will pay off in the long run. In November of 1979, a hydraulic technician came to my office and tried to convince me that he could design a drip irrigation system better than the engineer.

One of his systems at a 500-hectare vegetable farm in Puerto Rico failed during the first crop. I helped to save this farm from total failure.

We had to do the necessary modifications to the existing design and replace the necessary parts. I recommend 100% to consult an engineer to design the drip irrigation system.

Drip Irrigation Zone ( indicates that “design is an important aspect of a drip system because the irrigation scheduling depends on it.

While designing the system, keep in mind different plants with different watering needs. Also take the soil and slopes into consider-ation. Suppose the field has a heavy clay soil, one may require setting up a system with high water pressure.

According to the irrigation needs in a particular situation, one should choose emitters and make sure where the lines, laterals, accessories and connectors should be best placed.” According to this website, there are variations in a drip irrigation system.

They have listed various types of drip systems to meet different watering requirements, such as: Toro drip irrigation system, gravity drip irrigation system, rain bird drip irrigation system, lawn drip irrigation system, automatic drip irrigation system, farm drip irrigation system, in-door drip irrigation system, dig drip irrigation system, mini-sprinkler irrigation system, drip irrigation fertilization, seasonal drip irrigation, eco drip irrigation, and Jain drip irrigation.

Jain Irrigation Systems, Ltd. ( htm) indicates that “an irrigation system is a sophisticated and complex one, in which each component plays a very important role.

The reliability and efficiency of an irrigation system is a function of superior product, proper and skilled services, and professional design.

Our design department has a staff of skilled engineers with experience in every aspect of irrigation systems, beginning with water source pumping and delivery systems right up to the design of the system.

Our professional and cost effective design helped us to bring thousands of acre area under micro irrigation throughout India and abroad.”

Micro-irrigation, also known as trickle irrigation or drip irrigation or localized irrigation or high frequency or pressurized irrigation, is an irrigation method that saves water and fertilizer by allowing water to drip slowly to the roots of plants, either onto the soil surface or directly onto the root zone, through a network of valves, pipes, tubing, and emitters.

It is done through narrow tubes that deliver water directly to the base of the plant. It is a system of crop irrigation involving the controlled delivery of water directly to individual plants and can be installed on the soil surface or subsurface.

The other important benefits of using micro irrigation systems include expansion in the area under irrigation, water conservation, optimum use of fertilizers and chemicals through water, and decreased labor costs, among others.

The worldwide population is increasing at a rapid rate and it is imperative that food supply keeps pace with this increasing population.

Micro irrigation systems are often used in farms and large gardens, but are equally effective in the home garden or even for houseplants or lawns.

They are easily customizable and can be set up even by inexperienced gardeners. Putting a drip system into the garden is a great do-it-yourself project that will ultimately save the time and help the plants grow. It is equally used in landscaping and in green cities.

The mission of this book volume is to serve as a reference manual for graduate and under graduate students of agricultural, biological and civil engineering, and horticulture, soil science, crop science and agronomy.

I hope that it will be a valuable reference for professionals who work with micro irrigation and water management; for professional training institutes, for technical agricultural centers, for irrigation centers, for agricultural extension services, and for other agencies that work with micro irrigation programs.

I cannot guarantee the information in this book will be enough for all situations. One must consult an irrigation engineer for an optimum design.

After my first textbook, Drip/Trickle or Micro Irrigation Management, published by Apple Academic Press Inc., and response from international readers, AAP has published for the world community the ten-volume series on Research Advances in Sustainable Micro Irrigation, of which I am the editor.

This new book, Sustainable Micro Irrigation Design Systems for Agricultural Crops: Methods and Practices, is volume two of a new book series, Innovations and Challenges in Micro Irrigation.

This volume is unique because it is complete and simple, a one-stop manual, with worldwide applicability to irrigation management in agriculture.

This series will be a must for those interested in irrigation planning and management, namely, researchers, scientists, educators, and students.

My longtime colleague, Dr. Pravukalyan Panigrahi, Scientist at Directorate of Water Management, Bhubaneswar-Odisha-India, joins me as a co-editor of this edition. His contribution to the quality of this book has been invaluable.

Volume one of the series is Principles and Management of Clogging in Micro Irrigation, is edited by me along with my colleagues Vishal K. Chavan, and Vinod K. Tripathi.

The contributions by all cooperating authors to this book have been most valuable in this compilation. Their names are mentioned in each chapter and in the list of contributors.

This book would not have been written without the valuable cooperation of these investigators, many of whom are renowned scientists who have worked in the field of micro irrigation throughout their professional careers.

I would like to thank editorial staff, Sandy Jones Sickels, Vice President, and Ashish Kumar, Publisher and President at Apple Academic Press, Inc., for making every effort to publish the book when the diminishing water resources are a major issue worldwide.

Special thanks are due to the AAP Production Staff for the quality production of this book. We request readers offer us your constructive suggestions that may help to improve future works.

I express my deep admiration to my family for understanding and collaboration during the preparation of this book, especially my wife Subhadra Devi Goyal.

With my whole heart and best affection, I dedicate this book to Dr. A.M. Michael, who taught me first undergraduate course on irrigation engineering at Punjab Agricultural University, Ludhiana, Punjab, India.

One of his textbooks, titled Irrigation: Theory and Practice, published by Vikas Publishing House Pvt. Ltd, India, is widely used in Asia.

He was my guru who taught me to love irrigation and asked me to never play a trick to the irrigation design, as it is a serious responsibility of the engineer.

He also told me in one of our informal meeting that the engineer “who never sells his profession” is married for life to the engineering profession.

He helped me to inherit many ethical and professional qualities. I am a mirror image of his humble and honest personality, though I will never be equal to his status.

Without his advice and patience, I would not have been a “Father of Irrigation Engineering of twentieth century in Puerto Rico,” with zeal for service to others.

My salute to him for his irrigation legacy in India.

As an educator, I offer this advice to one and all in the world: “Permit that our Almighty God, our Creator and excellent Teacher, irrigate the life with His Grace of rain trickle by trickle, because our life must continue trickling on…”

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