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Industrial Automation An Engineering Approach | PDF Free Download.
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As the global marketplace demands higher quality goods and lower costs, factory floor automation has been changing from separate machines with simple hardware-based controls, if any, to an integrated manufacturing enterprise with linked and sophisticated control and data systems.
For many organizations the transformation has been gradual, starting with the introduction of programmable logic controllers and personal computers to machines and processes. However, for others, the change has been rapid and is still accelerating.
There are two ways to achieve high yields in manufacturing. The simplest, yet most expensive way is to increase the number of production lines.
An alternative and more desirable way are to increase the rate of production in the existing production lines. It is possible to increase the production rate by reducing the cycle time needed to produce a single part or product.
There are also two ways to reduce cycle time. The first approach is to improve the manufacturing process. The second approach is to automate the manufacturing process by using re-programmable and automatically controlled equipment.
This chapter discusses the type of automation and reason that make up industrial automation.
Automation refers to a technology based on the usage of mechanical, electronic, and computer systems in handling process and manufacturing process control.
The usage of automation technology started when work done by labor/worker was started to replace by machine.
The technology development process continuously improves until humans started to introduce the usage of robotic, CAD/CAM, Flexible manufacturing systems, and other technology to increase the human quality of life and increase productivity in the industrial.
The word ‘Automation’ is derived from the Greek words “Auto”(self) and “Matos” (moving). Automation, therefore, is the mechanism for systems that “move by itself”.
However, apart from this original sense of the word, automated systems also achieve significantly superior performance than what is possible with manual systems, in terms of power, precision, and speed of operation.
Companies undertake projects in manufacturing automation and computer integrated manufacturing for a variety of good reasons. Some of the reasons used to justify automated are the following:
To increase labor productivity. Automating a manufacturing operation usually increases production rate and labor productivity. This means greater output per hour of labor input.
To reduce labor costs. Ever-increasing tabor cost has been and continues to be the trend in the world's industrialized societies. Consequently, higher investment in automation has become economically justifiable to replace manual operations. Machines are increasingly being substituted for human lahar to reduce unit product cost.
To migrate the effects of labor shortages. There is a general shortage of labor in many advanced nations and this has stimulated the development of automated operations as a substitute tor labor.
To reduce or eliminate routine manual and clerical tasks. An argument can be put forth that there is social value in automating operations that are routine, boring, fatiguing, and possibly irksome. Automating such tasks serves the purpose of improving the general level of working conditions.
To improve worker safety. By automating a given operation and transferring the worker from active participation in the process to a supervisory role, the work is made safer.
The safety and physical well-being of the worker has become a national objective with the' enactment of the Occupational Safety and Health Act (OSHA) in 1970. This has provided an impetus for automation.
To improve product quality. Automation not only results in higher production rates than manual operations; it also performs the manufacturing process with greater uniform and conformity to quality specifications. The reduction attraction defect rate is one of the chief benefits of automation.
To reduce manufacturing lead lime. Automation helps to reduce the elapsed time between customer order and product delivery, providing a competitive advantage 10 the manufacturer for future orders. By reducing manufacturing lead time, the manufacturer also reduces work-in-process inventory.
To accomplish processes that cannot be done manually. Certain operations cannot be accomplished without the aid of a machine. These processes have requirements for precision, miniaturization, or complexity of geometry that cannot be achieved manually.
Examples include certain integrated circuit fabrication operations, rapid prototyping processes based on computer graphics (CAD) models, and the machining of complex, mathematically defined surfaces using computer numerical control. These processes can only be realized by computer-controlled systems.
To avoid the high cost of not automating. There is a significant competitive advantage gained in automating a manufacturing plant. The advantage cannot easily be demonstrated on a company's project authorization form.
The benefits of automation often show up in unexpected and intangible ways, such as improved quality, higher sales, better labor relations, and better company image.
Companies that do not automate are likely to find themselves at a competitive disadvantage with their customers, their employees, and the general public
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