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Wind Turbine Technology Principles and Design by Muyiwa Adaramola | PDF Free Download.
Muyiwa Adaramola, Ph.D. Dr. Muyiwa S. Adaramola earned his BSc and MSc in Mechanical Engineering from Obafemi Awolowo University, Nigeria and the University of Ibadan, Nigeria, respectively.
He received his Ph.D. in Environmental Engineering at the University of Saskatchewan Saskatoon, Canada. He has worked as a researcher at the Norwegian University of Science and Technology, focusing on wind energy, wind turbine performance, and wind turbine wake.
Currently, Dr. Adaramola is an Associate Professor in Renewable Energy at the Norwegian University of Life Sciences, Ås, Norway
Part I: Aerodynamics
Part II: Generators and Gear Systems
Part III: Tower and Foundation
Part IV: Control Systems
This book seeks to introduce some of the basic principles of wind turbine design. The different chapters discuss ways to analyze wind turbine performance, approaches for wind turbine improvement, fault detection in wind turbines, and how to mediate the adverse effects of wind turbine use.
The book is broken into five sections: the first focuses on wind turbine blade design, the second goes into detail on generators and gear systems, the third focuses on wind turbine towers and foundations, the fourth is on control systems, and the final section discusses some of the environmental issues.
In Chapter 1, a detailed review of the current state of the art for wind turbine blade design is presented, including theoretical maximum efficiency, propulsion, practical efficiency, HAWT blade design, and blade loads.
Schubel and Crossley provide a complete picture of wind turbine blade design and shows the dominance of modern turbines’ almost exclusive use of horizontal axis rotors.
The aerodynamic design principles for a modern wind turbine blade are detailed, including blade plan shape/quantity, aerofoil selection, and optimal attack angles.
A detailed review of design loads on wind turbine blades is offered, describing aerodynamic, gravitational, centrifugal, gyroscopic and operational conditions.
Ohya and Karasudani have developed a new wind turbine system that consists of a diffuser shroud with a broad-ring brim at the exit periphery and a wind turbine inside it in Chapter 2.
The shrouded wind turbine with a brimmed diffuser has demonstrated power augmentation by a factor of about 2–5 compared with a bare wind turbine, for a given turbine diameter and wind speed.
This is because a low-pressure region, due to a strong vortex formation behind the broad brim, draws more mass flow to the wind turbine inside the diffuser shroud.
According to ecodesign considerations and green manufacturing requirements, the choice of the moulding process for the production of composite wind turbine blades must provide the existence of a common area of intersection engendered by a simultaneous interaction between quality, health, and environment aspects (i.e. Q, H, and E for abbreviations, resp.).
This common area can be maximized via eco alternatives in order to minimize negative adverse environmental and/or human health impacts.
With this objective in mind, Chapter 3, by Attaf, focuses on the closed-mold manufacturing RTM (resin transfer molding) process.
The reason for this choice is that RTM process participates in the reduction of VOC (volatile organic compound) emissions such as styrene vapors and presents an industrial solution to wind turbine blades production coupled with high-quality finishing, good mechanical properties, lower cost, and a total absence of bonding operation of half-shells.
In addition to these advantages, sustainable development issues and ecodesign requirements are still, however, the main objectives to be fulfilled in this analysis with an acceptable degree of tolerance to the new regulations and eco-standards leading the way for green design of composite wind turbine blades.
Chapter 4, by Carrigan and colleagues, aims to introduce and demonstrate a fully automated process for optimizing the airfoil cross-section of a vertical-axis wind turbine (VAWT).
The objective is to maximize the torque while enforcing typical wind turbine design constraints such as tip speed ratio, solidity, and blade profile.
By fixing the tip speed ratio of the wind turbine, there exists an airfoil cross-section and solidity for which the torque can be maximized, requiring the development of an iterative design system.
The design system required to maximize torque incorporates rapid geometry generation and automated hybrid mesh generation tools with viscous, unsteady computational fluid dynamics (CFD) simulation software.
The flexibility and automation of the modular design and simulation system allow for it to easily be coupled with a parallel differential evolution algorithm used to obtain an optimized blade design that maximizes the efficiency of the wind turbine.
In Chapter 5, Habash and colleagues reinforce with theoretical and experimental evaluation of the effectiveness of employing an induction generator to enhance the performance of a small wind energy converter (SWEC).
With this generator, the SWEC works more efficiently and therefore can produce more energy in a unit turbine area. To verify the SWEC performance, a model has been proposed, simulated, built, and experimentally tested over a range of operating conditions.
The results demonstrate a significant increase in output power with an induction generator that employs an auxiliary winding, which is only magnetically coupled to the stator main winding.
It is also shown that the operating performance of the induction machine with the novel proposed technique is significantly enhanced in terms of suppressed signal distortion and harmonics, the severity of resistive losses and overheating power factor, and preventing high inrush current at starting.
The gearbox is one of the most expensive components of the wind turbine system. In order to refine the design and hence increase the long-term reliability, there has been increasing interest in utilizing time-domain simulations in the prediction of gearbox design loads.
In Chapter 6, by Dong and colleagues, three problems in time domain based gear contact fatigue analysis under dynamic conditions are discussed:
(1) the torque reversal problem under low wind speed conditions, (2) statistical uncertainty effects due to time-domain simulations and (3) simplified long term contact fatigue analysis of the gear tooth under dynamic conditions.
Several recommendations to deal with these issues are proposed based on analyses of the National Renewable Energy Laboratory’s 750 kW land-based Gearbox Reliability Collaborative wind turbine.
With appropriate vibration modeling and analysis, the incipient failure of key components such as the tower, drive train, and rotor of a large wind turbine can be detected.
In Chapter 7, the Nonlinear State Estimation Technique (NSET) has been applied by Guo and Infield to model turbine tower vibration to good effect, providing an understanding of the tower vibration dynamic characteristics and the main factors influencing these.
The developed tower vibration model comprises two different parts: a submodel used for below-rated wind speed; and another for above-rated wind speed.
Supervisory control and data acquisition system (SCADA) data from a single wind turbine collected from March to April 2006 are used in the modeling. Model validation has been subsequently undertaken and is presented.
This research has demonstrated the effectiveness of the NSET approach to tower vibration; in particular its conceptual simplicity, clear physical interpretation, and high accuracy.
The developed and validated tower vibration model was then used to successfully detect blade angle asymmetry that is a common fault that should be remedied promptly to improve turbine performance and limit fatigue damage.
The work also shows that condition monitoring is improved significantly if the information from the vibration signals is complemented by analysis of other relevant SCADA data such as power performance, wind speed, and rotor loads.
As the wind turbine size has been increasing and their mechanical components are built lighter, the reduction of the structural loads becomes a very important task of wind turbine control in addition to maximum wind power capture.
In Chapter 8, Park and Nam present a separate set of collective and individual pitch control algorithms. Both pitch control algorithms use the LQR control technique with integral action (LQRI) and utilize Kalman filters to estimate system states and wind speed.
Compared to previous works in this area, the authors’ pitch control algorithms can control rotor speed and blade bending moments at the same time to improve the trade-off between rotor speed regulation and load reduction, while both collective and individual pitch controls can be designed separately.
Simulation results show that the proposed collective and individual pitch controllers achieve very good rotor speed regulation and a significant reduction of blade bending moments.
Chapter 9, by Vidal and colleagues, considers power generation control in variable-speed variable-pitch horizontal-axis wind turbines operating at high wind speeds.
A dynamic chattering torque control and a proportional-integral (PI) pitch control strategy are proposed and validated using the National Renewable Energy Laboratory wind turbine simulator FAST (Fatigue, Aerodynamics, Structures, and Turbulence) code.
Validation results show that the proposed controllers are effective for power regulation and demonstrate high-performances for all other state variables (turbine and generator rotational speeds; and smooth and adequate evolution of the control variables) for turbulent wind conditions.
To highlight the improvements of the provided method, the proposed controllers are compared to relevant previously published studies.
Chapter 10, by Diaz de Corcuera and colleagues, demonstrates a strategy to design multivariable and multi-objective controllers based on the H∞ norm reduction applied to a wind turbine.
The wind turbine model has been developed in the GH Bladed software and it is based on a 5 MW wind turbine defined in the Upwind European project.
The designed control strategy works in the above-rated power production zone and performs generator speed control and load reduction on the drive train and tower. In order to do this, two robust H∞ MISO (Multi-Input Single-Output) controllers have been developed.
These controllers generate collective pitch angle and generator torque set-point values to achieve the imposed control objectives.
Linear models obtained in GH Bladed 4.0 are used, but the control design methodology can be used with linear models obtained from any other modeling package. Controllers are designed by setting out a mixed sensitivity problem, where some notch filters are also included in the controller dynamics.
The obtained H∞ controllers have been validated in GH Bladed and an exhaustive analysis has been carried out to calculate fatigue load reduction on wind turbine components, as well as to analyze load mitigation in some extreme cases.
The analysis compares the proposed control strategy based on H∞ controllers to a baseline control strategy designed using the classical control methods implemented on the present wind turbines. Electromagnetic interference (EMI) can both affect and be transmitted by mega-watt wind turbines.
In Chapter 11, Krug and Lewke provide a general overview of EMI with respect to megawatt wind turbines. Possibilities of measuring all types of electromagnetic interference are shown. Electromagnetic fields resulting from a GSM transmitter mounted on a megawatt wind turbine will be analyzed in detail.
This cellular system operates as a real-time communication link. The method-of-moments is used to analytically describe the electromagnetic fields.
The electromagnetic interference will be analyzed under the given boundary condition with a commercial simulation tool. Different transmitter positions are judged on the basis of their radiation patterns.
The principal EMI mechanisms are described and taken into consideration. The global push towards sustainability has led to increased interest in alternative power sources other than coal and fossil fuels.
One of these sustainable sources is to harness energy from the wind through wind turbines. However, a significant hindrance preventing the widespread use of wind turbines is the noise they produce.
Chapter 12, by Jianu and colleagues, reviews recent advances in the area of noise pollution from wind turbines. To date, there have been many different noise control studies. While there are many different sources of noise, the main one is aerodynamic noise.
The largest contributor to aerodynamic noise comes from the trailing edge of wind turbine blades.
The aim of this paper is to critically analyze and compare the different methods currently being implemented and investigated to reduce noise production from wind turbines, with a focus on the noise generated from the trailing edge.
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