This book is intended, like its predecessor (The metallurgy of welding, brazing and soldering), to provide a textbook for undergraduate and postgraduate students concerned with welding, and for candidates taking the Welding Institute examinations.
At the same time, it may prove useful to practising engineers, metallurgists and welding engineers in that it offers a resume of information on welding metallurgy together with some material on the engineering problems associated with welding such as reliability and risk analysis. In certain areas there have been developments that necessitated complete re-writing of the previous text.
Thanks to the author's colleagues in Study Group 212 of the International Institute of Welding, understanding of mass flow in fusion welding has been radically transformed. Knowledge of the metallurgy of carbon and ferritic alloy steel, as applied to welding, has continued to advance at a rapid pace, while the literature on fracture mechanics accumulates at an even greater rate.
In other areas, the welding of non-ferrous metals for example, there is little change to report over the last decade, and the original text of the book is only slightly modified. In those fields where there has been significant advance, the subject has become more quantitative and the standard of mathematics required for a proper understanding has been raised.
Mass flow in welding, for example, is not comprehensible without some knowledge of fluid dynamics, and fluid dynamics in turn is not comprehensible without a knowledge of vector analysis. In this and in other ways, welding technology will in the future, as it advances from a workshop subject to a full-fledged branch of engineering, demand higher standards of academic achievement from its students. SI units are used throughout the book and a list of conversion factors is to be found in Appendix 2. Symbols are standardised so far as practicable and are listed in Appendix 1.
The American Welding Society designations for welding processes have been used, although it is realised that in Europe (including the United Kingdom) there is a general preference for the older terms, TIG as opposed to GTA, for example. The AWS terms have been employed because they are more precise, have been standardised for a wider range of processes, and because A WS practice fmds increasing acceptance internationally, particularly in the oil, gas, petroleum and petrochemical industries, where welding is a key process in the manufacture of plant and equipment.
The author is glad to have the opportunity to thank Professor R. L. Apps, Professor C. E. Jackson and Dr. M. F. Jordan, for undertaking the onerous task of reading and commenting on the fIrst draft of this book. The majority of the comments thus received were incorporated into the fmal text, thereby much improving its quality.
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