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It is almost 20 years since I wrote the first edition of this (Advanced Thermodynamics for Engineers Second Edition), and I asked myself a number of questions when Elsevier invited me to consider writing a second edition. What is the status of thermodynamics in engineering education? Would a new edition basically be a minor update of the original one? Should I invite a ‘colleague’ to join me as a co-author?
The answer to the last question is that Professor Ali Turan, who was appointed to my Chair in UMIST when I retired, agreed to join me in this venture. Professor Turan was extremely enthusiastic about the place of the (Advanced Thermodynamics for Engineers Second Edition) in engineering education, and this buoyed up my spirits during the long period of preparing the manuscript.
The first question we tackled was the status of thermodynamics in engineering syllabuses: we both agreed that it should be an integral part of any course, and that its influence and concepts were central to understanding a wide range of subjects.
The need for an understanding of thermodynamic principles has increased over the last 20 years as the use of energy has expanded. The increase in the global demand for energy is shown in Figure 1, where it can be seen that a growth of around 3% per annum is occurring, but this is happening mainly in non-OECD countries where more than 5% is happening.
Obviously it would be beneficial if the developed (OECD) countries could reduce their energy consumption, but it is essential that the developing countries are encouraged to employ the most efficient technology to contain their legitimate demands.
We then considered the development of the new edition, and were helped by comments on the first edition obtained by the publishers. We both agreed that the underlying approach, centred on equilibrium thermodynamics, should be maintained, but it was apparent that the original text, written by me to support the final year undergraduate course, and the postgraduate Masters course, relied too heavily on the structure of those courses and the assumed background of the reader.
We hope we have remedied this by adding material at the beginning of the (Advanced Thermodynamics for Engineers Second Edition) that revises basic thermodynamics – this removes the rapid immersion of the reader in the concepts of equilibrium in the first chapter. We have also added some more ‘practical’ material on ‘heat engine’ cycles early in the text to help the reader get a feel for the applications of the more esoteric material later.
Finally, Chapters 16 and 17 discuss how the basic concepts of engineering thermodynamics affect the operation of reciprocating internal combustion engines and gas turbines. Professor Turan provided many ideas about the structure of the (Advanced Thermodynamics for Engineers Second Edition) , and these are evident if the first and second editions are compared: we hope that the development of the material is now more logical than in the first edition.
He was also able to bring in new material in a number of chapters, particularly on finite time thermodynamics, and fuel cells, which has enhanced this edition.
All of these modifications have resulted in a (Advanced Thermodynamics for Engineers Second Edition) that now has 21 chapters. Many of the chapters are based on the original 17 of the first edition. In some cases the changes are minor, resulting in the removal of spelling or minor arithmetic errors.
In others, new material has been added, or some material has been moved to other more appropriate chapters. All of the original diagrams have received minor modifications, if only to the typeface, and some have been redrawn.
The four new chapters cover a range of material. Chapter 1 is basically a revision of early thermodynamics, concentrating mainly on the concepts of systems and the first law: the material should be familiar to most readers.
Chapter 2 has been modified to introduce the second law and the concept of the heat engine, before subsuming Chapter 1 of the first edition. Chapter 3 discusses heat engine cycles and shows that all heat engines have an efficiency dominated by a temperature ratio – the definition of this varies with the cycle. This has an important bearing on deciding how to improve the efficiency of a power plant.
Realistic reciprocating engine cycles are introduced in the new Chapter 16, and it is shown why such engines do not achieve the efficiency of ideal heat engine cycles. In addition two computer programs are made available, in Chapters 12 and 16, to allow teachers and students to more fully develop the concepts in those chapters.
Gas turbine cycles are discussed in some detail in Chapter 17, and these are related to the basic principles introduced in Chapter 2. Almost 90 completely new diagrams are included in this text, and it is hoped these help in the understanding of the principles involved.
I would like to acknowledge the work done by John Nichols and Richard Pearson in developing the two programs available for use with this (Advanced Thermodynamics for Engineers Second Edition). They developed comprehensive programs that I have emasculated to make more amenable for the purposes of this book: I hope these prove useful.
I must also thank Philip Kosky who sent me some corrections for the first edition. The authors would also like to acknowledge the contributions made by Khurram Kafeel, Dr Mario Ferrari, Dr Kate Smith, Xiaochuan Yang in preparing this edition.
It is thanks to them that many of the errors in the original manuscript have been removed. Any shortcomings that remain in the text must be laid at the authors’ oversight, and for these we apologise. We would also like to acknowledge the patience of Chelsea Johnston at Elsevier who has coped with our many e-mails, our late response to requests, and our requirements to achieve the product we all desire.
Finally, I must thank my wife, Veronica, for allowing me to spend much more time on this project than I told her it would take. She has put up with my lack of domestic effort for almost a year, but I am sure there will be much to do now this task is finished.
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