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Willis’s Elements of Quantity Surveying 12th Edition by Sandra Lee, William Trench, and Andrew Willis | PDF Free Download.
This book was first published in 1935, and in the preface, to that first edition it stated that it was intended ‘to be a book giving everything in its simplest form and to assist a student to a good grounding in first principles’.
Each successive edition has been brought up to date; however, we have always striven to maintain the original guiding principles, which are as relevant today as they were 70 years ago.
Whilst the use of the traditional bill of quantities continues to decline and today is only one of a variety of options open to the industry for the procurement of construction contracts, nevertheless, the skills of measurement are still very much required in some form or another under most procurement routes.
This edition recognizes the publication by the Royal Institution of Chartered Surveyors (RICS) of the second volume of the New Rules of Measurement Detailed Measurement for Building Works (NRM2), and the text has been updated accordingly.
The basic structure of the book generally follows that of previous editions, setting down the measurement process from first principles and assuming the reader is coming fresh to the subject.
Whilst it is recognized that modern computerized measurement techniques utilizing standard descriptions might appear far removed from traditional taking-off, it is only by fully grasping such basic principles of measurement that they can be adapted and applied to alternative systems.
It is for this reason that the examples continue to be written in traditional form. The book opens with an overview of the need for measurement and the differing rules governing measurement at different stages of the design or project cycle.
The main focus of the book remains on the detailed measurement of elements of a building using the rules from NRM2 and concludes with guidance on how to use the data collected during the measurement process to create the tender documents.
Whilst the role of the quantity surveyor is subject to continual change, we hope that students will find this book as useful as their predecessors have.
The modern quantity surveyor
The training and knowledge of the quantity surveyor have enabled the role of the profession to evolve over time into new areas, and the services provided by the modern quantity surveyor now cover all aspects of procurement, contractual and project cost management.
This holds true whether the quantity surveyor works as a consultant or is employed by a contractor or subcontractor.
Whilst the importance of this expanded role cannot be emphasized enough, success in carrying it out stems from the traditional ability of the quantity surveyor to measure and value. It is on the aspect of measurement that this book concentrates.
The need for measurement
There is a need for measurement of a proposed construction project at various stages from the feasibility stage through to the final account.
This could be in order to establish a budget price, give a pre-tender estimate, provide a contract tender sum or evaluate the amount to be paid to a contractor. There are many construction or project management activities that require some form of measurement so that appropriate rates can be applied to the quantities and a price or cost established.
The general approach adopted in this book is to concentrate on the traditional approach to a construction whereby the client will employ a designer, and once the design is complete the work is tendered through the use of bills of quantities.
Other procurement approaches move the need for detailed measurement to later stages of the project cycle and away from activity undertaken by the client’s team to that of the contractor’s team.
The need for rules
The need for rules to be followed when undertaking any measurement becomes clear when costs for past projects are analysed and elemental rates or unit rates are calculated and then applied to the quantities for a proposed project.
For greater accuracy in pricing, it is important to be able to rely consistently on what is included in an element or unit, and this helps build a more reliable cost database.
Following the Royal Institute of British Architects (RIBA) 2013 Work Stages, the measurement is undertaken at Stage 1 ‘Preparation’ needs to be of basic areas or functional units, and the guidelines of the Royal Institute of Chartered Surveyors (RICS) Code of Measuring Practice are commonly followed.
This enables comparisons to be made between different schemes and options when assessing the feasibility of a project.
When preparing a cost plan, the need to include the same items in each element is important so that costs for that element can be accurately applied.
In May 2009, the RICS published the first in its planned new set of rules for measurement dealing with the order of cost estimates and elemental cost planning.
The RIBA work stages and the New Rules of Measurement (NRM) are explained further in Chapter 2. The same need for rules applies when measuring for bills of quantities.
If a document is to be used for tender purposes and included in a contract, then the contractor needs to know the basics of the measurement and what is included or excluded from an item to be priced. Historically, standard methods of measurement have been used to provide these rules and are available in various forms worldwide.
The RICS NRM detailed measurement for building works (NRM2) has now been published and is part of the RICS ‘black book’ guidance for accepted practice in the United Kingdom. At post-contract stages, it is important that the rules used in the contract document (if applicable) are followed to minimise disputes.
Establishing the approach
The approach to take for any measurement is to decide its purpose and the level of design detail available, enabling the adoption of the most appropriate rules and procedures.
Chapter 3 will look at the early stages of a building project, and the remainder of the book will then focus on the detailed measurement for bills of quantities.
Having an ability to read and understand the rules for measurement for bills of quantities should enable the measurer to appreciate the requirements of different rules and approaches.
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