Surveying is one of the most ancient professions, and in recent years it has been boosted by technology advances. These advances come from developments in optical, mechanical, electronics, aerospace, sensor, and information technologies. To this end, instrumentation deployed by modern surveyors is associated with a significant body of knowledge.
This book is about surveying instruments and covers all aspects of them, including historical references, physical and constructional principles of operation, and features of modern instruments. The idea of creating a book about surveying instruments occurred to us while speaking with our colleagues and customers. Existing books in the field of surveyor’s instruments were published many years ago and do not include up-to-date surveying instruments information.
We believe this book is long overdue as a complete description of the latest surveying instruments. This book is suitable for undergraduate and graduate students who are taking surveying courses, and professional surveyors seeking a better understanding of surveying instruments.
Field surveyors working on large construction projects, such as road networks and buildings, and other geodetic control networks may find useful details presented in this book. Surveying business owners may also benefit. It is hoped that this book will help readers to become aware of technological solutions behind the development of surveying instruments.
The authors take this opportunity and express a cordial gratitude to Trimble for support of the current book preparation by sharing with us materials on the UX5 HP Unmanned Aircraft system, which were very helpful with the unmanned aerial vehicle discussion.
We are very thankful for the help that came from Elena Sviridova, spouse of author Leonid Nadolinets. Elena was not only patient during our work, but also participated very actively in book writing and editing. We are also very pleased to express our gratitude to Jeremiah Harrington of the Michigan Tech Research Institute (MTRI) for his help.
Very special thanks goes to Almat Raskaliyev, a PhD student in the Department of Mechanics, Faculty of Mechanics and Mathematics of Al-Farabi Kazakh National University. He assisted in the preparation of the global navigation satellite system (GNSS) chapter. Eugene Levin is the program chair of surveying engineering and associate professor at the School of Technology at Michigan Technological University.
Levin also directs the Integrated Geospatial Technology graduate program. He earned an MS degree in astrogeodesy from Siberian State Geodetic Academy in 1982 and a PhD in photogrammetry from Moscow State Land Organization University in 1989.
He has more than 30 years of experience in academia and the geospatial industry in the United States, Israel, and Russia. He has held research and management positions with several academic institutions and high-tech companies, including the Research Institute of Applied Geodesy, Omsk Agricultural Academy, Rosnitc “Land,” Ness Technologies, Physical Optics Corporation,
Digital Map Products, American GNC, and Future Concepts.He has served as a principal investigator and project manager for multiple award-winning government programs Daulet Akhmedov has a PhD in theory of mechanisms and machines, and a PhD+ in geoinformation and geotechnology.
He is currently a director at the Institute of Space Technique and Technology, in Almaty, Kazakhstan. His research interests include mathematical models and numerical methods for solving the problem of simulating motion of mine dumps of various models, mainline, and shunting locomotives and trains; mathematical models and numerical methods for high-precision satellite navigation;
design and development of geographic information systems (GIS); design, manufacture, and implementation of communication systems based on low-orbit satellite communication systems; design, manufacture, and implementation of highprecision satellite navigation systems; and development of dispatching systems based on the use of low-orbiting satellite systems, VHF and GSM communications, satellite navigation technologies, and GIS technologies.
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