Surveying Engineering and Instruments by Valeria Shank
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Surveying Engineering and Instruments by Valeria Shank

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Surveying Engineering Instruments Contents

  • Chapter 1 - Surveying
  • Chapter 2 - Cave Survey
  • Chapter 3 - Construction Surveying
  • Chapter 4 - Environmental Surveying
  • Chapter 5 - Geodetic System
  • Chapter 6 - Dumpy Level & Gyrotheodolite
  • Chapter 7 - Hydrographic Survey
  • Chapter 8 - Traverse (Surveying)
  • Chapter 9 - Tripod (Surveying) & Tribrach (Instrument)
  • Chapter 10 - Resection (Orientation) & Theodolite
  • Chapter 11 - Total Station & Surveyor's Wheel
  • Chapter 12 - Plumb-Bob & Graphometer
  • Chapter 13 - Circumferentor
  • Chapter 14 - Tape Correction (Surveying)
  • Chapter 15 - Survey Marker
  • Chapter 16 - Triangulation 

Preface to Surveying Engineering Instruments PDF

Surveying or land surveying is the technique and science of accurately determining the terrestrial or three-dimensional position of points and the distances and angles between them.

These points are usually on the surface of the Earth, and they are often used to establish land maps and boundaries for ownership or governmental purposes.

To accomplish their objective, surveyors use elements of geometry, engineering, trigonometry, mathematics, physics, and law.

An alternative definition, per the American Congress on Surveying and Mapping (ACSM), is the science and art of making all essential measurements to determine the relative position of points and/or physical and cultural details above, on, or beneath the surface of the Earth, and to depict them in a usable form, or to establish the position of points and/or details.

Furthermore, as alluded to above, a particular type of surveying known as "land surveying" (also per ACSM) is the detailed study or inspection, as by gathering information through observations, measurements in the field, questionnaires, or research of legal instruments, and data analysis in the support of planning, designing, and establishing of property boundaries.

It involves the re-establishment of cadastral surveys and land boundaries based on documents of record and historical evidence, as well as certifying surveys (as required by statute or local ordinance) of subdivision plats/maps, registered land surveys, judicial surveys, and space delineation.

Land surveying can include associated services such as mapping and related data accumulation, construction layout surveys, precision measurements of length, angle, elevation, area, and volume, as well as horizontal and vertical control surveys, and the analysis and utilization of land survey data.

Surveying has been an essential element in the development of the human environment since the beginning of recorded history (about 5,000 years ago).

It is required in the planning and execution of nearly every form of construction. Its most familiar modern uses are in the fields of transport, building and construction, communications, mapping, and the definition of legal boundaries for land ownership. 

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