Unified Design of Steel Structures by Louis F. Geschwindner
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Unified Design of Steel Structures by Louis F. Geschwindner

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Unified Design of Steel Structures Contents

  •  Introduction 
  • Loads, Load Factors, and Load Combinations 
  • Steel Building Materials 
  • Tension Members
  • Compression Members 
  • Bending Members
  • Plate Girders
  • Beam-Columns and Frame Behavior
  • Composite Construction
  •  Connection Elements 
  • Simple Connections
  • Moment Connections
  •  Steel Systems for Seismic Resistance

Preface to Unified Design of Steel Structures PDF

This book presents the design of steel building structures based on the 2005 unified specification, ANSI/AISC 360-05 Specification for Structural Steel Buildings.

It is intended primarily as a text for the first course in steel design for civil and architectural engineers. Such a course usually occurs in the third or fourth year of an engineering program.

The book can also be used in a second, building-oriented course in steel design, depending on the coverage in the first course.

In addition to its use as an undergraduate text, it provides a good review for practicing engineers looking to learn the provisions of the unified specification and to convert their practice from either of the old specifications to the new specification.

Users are expected to have a firm knowledge of statics and strength of materials and have easy access to the AISC Steel Construction Manual, 13th Edition.

A preferred approach to the design of steel structures has been elusive over the last 20 years. In 1986, the American Institute of Steel Construction (AISC) issued its first Load and Resistance Factor Design (LRFD) Specification for Structural Steel Buildings.

This specification came after almost 50 years of publication of an Allowable Stress Design (ASD) specification. Unfortunately, LRFD was accepted by the academic community but not by the professional engineering community.

Although AISC revised the format of the ASD specification in 1989, it had not updated its provisions for over 25 years.

This use of two specifications was seen as an undesirable situation by the professions and in 2001 AISC began the development of a combined ASD and LRFD specification. In 2005, AISC published its first unified specification, combining the provisions of both the LRFD and ASD specifications into a single standard for the design of steel building structures.

This new specification, ANSI/AISC 360-05 Specification for Structural Steel Buildings, reflects a major change in philosophy by AISC, one that makes the use of ASD and LRFD equally acceptable approaches for the design of steel buildings.

The reader familiar with past editions of the ASD and LRFD specifications will undoubtedly question how these two diverse design philosophies can be effectively combined into one specification. This is a reasonable question to ask.

The primary answer is that this specification is not a combination of the old ASD and LRFD provisions. It is a new approach with a new ASD that uses the same strength equations as the new LRFD.

A combination of the old ASD provisions with the old LRFD provisions could lead, in some cases, to a design wherein an element is treated as behaving elastically for ASD design and plastically for LRFD design.

The unified specification takes a different approach. It is based on the understanding that the strength of an element or structure, called the nominal strength in the specification, can be determined independently of the design philosophy.

Once that nominal strength is determined, the available strength for ASD or LRFD is determined as a function of that nominal strength.

Thus, the available strength of the element is always based on the same behavior and no inconsistency in behavior results from the use of ASD or LRFD. This important aspect of the unified specification is further explained in Chapter 1.

In addition to the provisions for steel design issued by AISC, structural engineering has seen many changes in the area of loads for which buildings must be designed.

The American Society of Civil Engineers (ASCE) is continually revising ASCE-7 Minimum Design Loads for Buildings and Other Structures, it's standard for building loads. The International Code Council (ICC) has issued its International Building Code (IBC), and the National Fire Protection Association (NFPA) has issued its model building code (NFPA 5000).

The major changes brought about by these new standards are the inclusion of requirements for consideration of seismic loading, which now applies to almost the entire country.

In response to the expansion of the requirements for seismic design, AISC issued ANSI/ AISC 341-05 Seismic Provisions for Structural Steel Buildings, a standard to guide the design of steel building structures to resist seismic loads.

For the calculation of loads within this text, ASCE 7-05 provisions are used. For any actual design, the designer must use the loadings established by the governing building code. The AISC seismic provisions are discussed in Chapter 13.

ANSI/ AISC 360-05 is, as much as possible, a unitless specification. In those rare instances where equations could not be written in a unitless form, two equations are given, one in U.S. customary units and one in SI units.

The Manual presents all of its material in U.S. customary units. The construction industry in this country has not adopted SI units in any visible way, and it is not clear that they will in the foreseeable future. Thus, this book uses only U.S. customary units. 

Chapters 1 through 3 present the general material applicable to all steel structures. This is followed in Chapters 4 through 9 with a presentation of member design.

Chapters 10 through 12 discuss connections and Chapter 13 provides an introduction to seismic design.

In Chapter 1, the text addresses the principles of limit states design upon which all-steel design is based. It shows how these principles are incorporated into both LRFD and ASD approaches.

Chapter 2 introduces the development of load factors, resistance factors, and safety factors. It discusses load combinations and compares the calculation of required strength for both LRFD and ASD.

Chapter 3 discusses steel as a structural material. It describes the availability of steel in a variety of shapes and the grades of steel available for construction.

Once the foundation for steel design is established, the various member types are considered. Tension members are addressed in Chapter 4, compression members in Chapter 5, and bending members in Chapter 6.

Chapter 7 covers plate girders, which are simply bending members made from individual plates. Chapter 8 treats members subjected to combined axial load and bending as well as the design of bracing.

Chapter 9 deals with composite members, that is, members composed of both steel and concrete working together to provide the available strength.

Each of these chapters begins with a discussion of that particular member type and how it is used in buildings.

This is followed by a discussion of the specification provisions and the behavior from which those provisions have been derived. The LRFD and ASD design philosophies of the 2005 specification are used throughout.

Design examples that use the specification provisions directly are provided along with examples using the variety of design aids available in the AISC Steel Construction Manual. All examples that have an LRFD and ASD component are provided for both approaches.

Throughout this book., ASO examples, or portions of examples that address the ASD approach, are presented with shaded background for ease of identification.

The member-oriented chapters are followed by chapters addressing connection design. Chapter I 0 introduces the variety of potential connection types and discusses the strength of bolts, welds, and connecting elements.

Chapter 11 addresses simple connections. This includes simple beam shear connections and light bracing connections. Chapter 12 deals with moment-resisting connections.

As with the member-oriented chapters, the basic principles of limit state design are developed first. This is followed by the application of the provisions to simple shear connections and beam-to-column moment connections through extensive examples in both LRFD and ASD.

The text concludes in Chapter 13 with an introduction to steel systems for seismic force resistance.

It discusses the variety of structural framing systems available and approved for inclusion in the seismic force-resisting system. 

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