Soil Retaining Structures Development of Models for Structural Analysis by K. J. Bakker
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Soil Retaining Structures Development of Models for Structural Analysis by K. J. Bakker

This thesis describes a part of the work that I have been involved with while working at the Dutch Public Works department, after graduation from Delft University of Technology. The work has mainly been focussed on the development of models for the structural analysis of soil retaining structures. One of the objectives that has been taken, to describe this work in a coherent framework, is the proposition that structural analysis is an essential step to be taken in the design process for a civil engineering product. This assumption enables the view that structural analysis is not only meant to secure the structural safety, but also to optimise the civil engineering product The initial phase of this research was carried out when I was working in the Hydraulic Engineering section of the Road and Hydraulic engineering division This research was concerned with soil-water-structure interaction including erosion control, filter stability and revetment design. The research on soil-water structure interaction is described in the chapter on blockrevetments, i.e. a revetments function is to keep the soil particles together, against wave attack and erosion.

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Here the typification soil retaining structure is used if the structure's function is to maintain a soil slope that is steeper than the natural angle of repose The research related to filter stability is not included in this thesis. After leaving the Road and Hydraulic Engineering division for the Structural Engineering division the core of the work was changed to soil mechanics and foundation engineering, i.e. sheet pile retaining walls and tunnelling. These projects were, among others, the CUR sheet piling handbook, and the monitoring of the Second Heinenoord tunnel During that period I was also involved with the development of the computer code PLAXIS. The development and implementation of structural elements in this computer code, which was initially developed for the analysis of soil behaviour only, has improved the practical benefit of this computer code In order to relate the analytical work to the practical purposes they are needed for, the application of this analytical work into design is described. Design offers the perspective needed to give structural analysis a frame of reference. Besides analysis, creativity is required to generate alternatives. For design purposes analysis and creativity are linked by the optimisation process.

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