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Transportation and Power Grid in Smart Cities Communication Networks and Services by Hussein T. Mouftah and Melike Erol-Kantarci | PDF Free Download.
In recent years, there has been an increasing trend in population moving toward urban regions and large cities. It is envisioned that future cities around the world will be smart cities. Plenty of efforts have been made to improve the quality of inhabitants of smart cities by integrating different technologies in their day-to-day lifestyle.
These improvements include advancement in public facilities such as water systems, transportation systems, and the electricity system.
In smart cities, information, and communication technologies (ICT) will play a vital role in providing services in urban environments.
These services include real-time monitoring and control through wireless sensor and actuator networks. Smart grids (SGs), intelligent transportation systems (ITS), the Internet of Things (IoT), electric vehicles (EVs), and wireless sensor networks (WSNs) will be the building blocks of future smart cities.
“Smart grid” refers to the modernization of the traditional power grid by incorporating two-way digital communication support at the generation, transmission, and distribution levels.
“Intelligent transportation system” refers to making the vehicular traffic smarter by reducing congestion, optimizing fuel consumption, choosing shorter routes, and improving safety, as well as allowing self-driving cars by using communication and sensing technologies.
The “Internet of Things” refers to a worldwide network of interconnected objects uniquely addressable, based on standard communication protocols and allows people and things to be connected anytime, anyplace, with anything and anyone, ideally using any path/network and any service.
The IoT can be very useful for resource management in the context of smart cities. Wireless sensor networks are composed of sensor nodes capable of performing sensing.
The application of WSNs ranges from environmental monitoring to forest fire detection and from power system applications to disaster, security, emergency applications in urban environments.
Electric vehicles aim to reduce vehicle emissions and can also be envisaged as mobile power stations, which can introduce the consumer-generated energy to the main electrical grid. All these technologies will somehow help to build a smart city.
This book provides detailed insights on communication networks and services for transportation and power grid for future smart cities.
The book aims to be a complementary reference for the smart city governors, utility operators, telecom operators, communications engineers, power engineers, electric vehicle service providers, university professors, researchers, and students who would like to grasp the advances in smart cities, smart grid, and intelligent transportation.
This book accommodates 23 book chapters authored by world-renowned experts, all presenting their views on transportation and power grid in smart cities with a focus on communication networks and services.
The chapters are organized into five parts. Part I: Communication Technologies for Smart Cities focuses on the latest advancements in smart grid communications including cognitive radio-based solutions, device-to-device communications, and 5G. Part I consists of five chapters.
Chapter 1 “Energy-Harvesting Cognitive Radios in Smart Cities,” authored by Mustafa Ozgur, Oktay Cetinkaya and Ozgur B. Akan, discusses the potential use cases of energy harvesting cognitive radios in smart cities along with research challenges that need to be addressed.
Cognitive radio is a revolutionary technology that allows for opportunistic use of the unused spectrum frequencies to increase communication capabilities and improve the overall system performance.
On the other hand, energy harvesting brings a new perspective to the operation of cognitive radio, and their use in smart cities bears many opportunities that can lead to remarkable advances. Chapter 2 “LTE-D2D Communication for Power Distribution Grid:
Resource Allocation for Time-Critical Applications,” authored by Leonardo Dagui de Oliveira, Taufik Abrao, and Ekram Hossain, focuses on device-to-device communications and LTE integration for applications in time-critical smart grid infrastructure.
The authors propose a full-duplex LTE-D2D scheduler to improve the capacity of LTE networks to enhance their performance in smart city applications.
Chapter 3 “5G and Cellular Networks in the Smart Grid,” authored by Jimmy Jessen Nielsen, Ljupco Jorguseski, Haibin Zhang, Hervé Ganem, Ziming Zhu, and Petar Popovski, describes and analyzes the most relevant wireless cellular communication technologies for supporting the smart grid.
Under the umbrella of 3GPP, the authors have looked specifically at releases up to and including Release 13, as well as considering the non-3GPP technologies such as IEEE 802.11ah, Sigfox, and LoRa.
The authors provide a solid tutorial on cellular networks and their use in smart grid and smart cities.
Chapter 4 “Machine-to-Machine Communications in the Smart City—a Smart Grid Perspective,” authored by Ravil Bikmetov, M. Yasin Akhtar Raja, and Khurram Kazi, presents intelligent Machine-to-Machine Communication techniques that can be used in smart cities.
The chapter discusses optimization algorithms and machine learning techniques for the efficient management of energy services in smart cities.
Chapter 5 “5G and D2D Communications at the Service of Smart Cities,” authored by Muhammad Usman, Muhammad Rizwan Asghar, and Fabrizio Granelli, provides an excellent survey on 5G and Device-to-Device (D2D) communications in the context of smart cities.
The chapter presents smart city scenarios, their communication requirements, and the potential impact on the life of citizens as well as discussing the impact of big data on smart cities with potential security and privacy concerns.
Part II: Emerging Communication Networks for Smart Cities consists of five chapters that focus on emerging networks for smart cities.
Chapter 6 “Software Defined Networking and Virtualization for Smart Grid,” authored by Hakki C. Cankaya, gives a comprehensive review of the state of the art in the smart grid and SDN.
The chapter then discusses the use cases for SDN for the smart grid as well as several smart city scenarios.
Chapter 7 “GHetNet: A Framework Validating Green Mobile Femtocells in Smart-Grids,” authored by Fadi Al-Tudjman, focuses on energy-efficiency aspects of communications systems and presents an energy-based analysis of femtocells in ultra-large-scale (ULS) applications such as the smart grid.
Chapter 8 “Communication Architectures and Technologies for Advanced Smart Grid Services,” authored by Francois Lemercier, Guillaume Habault, Georgios Z. Papadopoulos, Patrick Maille, Periklis Chatzimisios, and Nicolas Montavont, presents communication architectures and technologies employed in the smart grid and the requirements for next-generation smart grid systems.
The chapter compares existing routing families in the constrained-based smart grid environment. Chapter 9 “Wireless Sensor Networks in Smart Cities: Applications of Channel Bonding to Meet Data Communication Requirements,” authored by Syed Hashim Raza Bukhari, Sajid Siraj, and Mubashir Husain Rehmani, motivates the use of WSN-based solutions in smart cities.
The authors have introduced a channel-bonding technique for cognitive radios that can meet the requirements of high-bandwidth applications in smart cities.
The chapter concludes with interesting future directions that pinpoint the open issues in this very active area of research. Chapter 10 “A Prediction Module for Smart City IoT Platforms,” authored by Sema F. Oktug, Yusuf Yaslan, and Halil Gulacar, brings the IoT perspective to the smart city discussion of our book.
The authors emphasize the significance of prediction and present a tool that is used for the prediction of traffic jams in populated smart cities.
Part III: Renewable Energy Resources and Microgrid in Smart Cities covers the integration of renewable energy sources and the use of microgrids in smart cities.
This part consists of four chapters. Chapter 11 “Integration of Renewable Energy Resources in the Smart Grid: Opportunities and Challenges,” authored by Mohammad Upal Mahfuz, Ahmed O. Nasif, Md Maruf Hossain, and Md Abdur Rahman, presents the opportunities and the corresponding challenges of integrating renewable energy resources in the smart grid.
This chapter extensively discusses the impact of renewable energy on the sustainable smart grid and sustainable cities.
Chapter 12 “Environmental Monitoring for Smart Buildings,” authored by Petros Spachos and Konstantinos Plataniotis, focuses on smart buildings, which are an important component of the smart city.
Their chapter introduces a wireless sensor network system that monitors the quality of the air in smart buildings.
A framework is proposed for real-time remote monitoring of the carbon dioxide in a complex indoor environment showing an excellent real-world implementation of a smart building.
Chapter 13 “Cooperative Energy Management in Microgrids,” authored by Ioannis Zenginis, John Vardakas, Prodromos-Vasileios Mekikis, and Christos Verikoukis, presents a cooperative energy management model for buildings that can exchange the energy produced by their PV panels or stored at their energy storage systems (ESSs), in a smart way so that the excess energy of buildings with energy surplus is consumed by buildings of the same microgrid with an energy deficit.
Energy management of buildings is certainly an important part of smart cities, and this chapter has a special focus on buildings and energy management.
Chapter 14 “Optimal Planning and Performance Assessment of Multi-Microgrid Systems in Future Smart Cities,” authored by Shouxiang Wang, Lei Wu, Qi Liu, and Shengxia Cai, introduces optimal planning for multi-microgrids (MG).
A microgrid is a small-scale power system containing distributed generation, loads, ESSs, and a control system. MGs have high flexibility so that they can be connected to the distribution network or work in an isolated mode when grid faults occur in the distribution network. Therefore, they are anticipated to have a significant role in smart cities.
This chapter provides valuable results on the resilient planning of multi-microgrids. Part IV: Smart Cities, Intelligent Transportation System, and Electric Vehicles includes four chapters focusing on electric vehicles and intelligent transportation solutions that are a part of smart cities.
Chapter 15 “Wireless Charging for Electric Vehicles in the Smart Cities: Technology Review and Impact,” authored by Alicia Triviño-Cabrera and José A. Aguado, provides an extensive review on wireless power transfer applied to the charging of electric vehicles and studies the scheduling algorithms that control the timing of the charging process in a group of EVs.The authors provide useful insights and present open issues in this exciting field of research.
Chapter 16 “Channel Access Modelling for EV Charging/Discharging Service through Vehicular ad hoc Networks (VANETs) Communications,” authored by Dhaou Said and Hussein T. Mouftah, first presents the scheduling problem for electric vehicle (EV) charging/discharging and then introduces a specific case study of the channel access modeling for the EV charging service based on the IEEE802.11p/DSRC protocol.
Chapter 17 “Intelligent Parking Management in Smart Cities,” authored by Sanket Gupte and Mohamed Younis, focuses on a popular smart city application, namely intelligent parking.
The authors provide a taxonomy of parking systems, they survey existing solutions and highlight the most important aspects, advantages, and shortcomings, and then they categorize regular parking systems based on the sensing infrastructure, communication infrastructure, storage infrastructure, application infrastructure, and user interfacing.
Chapter 18 “Electric Vehicle Scheduling and Charging in Smart Cities,” authored by Muhammad Amjad, Mubashir Husain Rehmani, and Tariq Umer, provides an overview of different scheduling approaches involved in recharging of EVs in smart cities.
The authors highlight various objectives such as frequency regulation, reduction of power losses, minimization of the total cost for recharging, and integration of renewable energy resources during the controlled scheduling of EVs recharging.
They also discuss communications requirements and resource management for scheduling the EVs recharging in smart cities. Part V: Security and Privacy Issues and Big Data in Smart Cities is the last part of this book and covers security and privacy issues as well as big data in smart cities.
It consists of five chapters. Chapter 19 “Cybersecurity and Resiliency of Transportation and Power Systems in Smart Cities,” authored by Seyedamirabbas Mousavian, Melike Erol-Kantarci, and Hussein T. Mouftah, demonstrate the vulnerability of the phasor measurement unit (PMU) networks and electric vehicle infrastructure (EVI) to cyberattacks.
The chapter is an excellent guide to building response models against cyberattacks in the smart grid and smart cities.
Chapter 20 “Protecting the Privacy of Electric Consumers in the Smart City,” authored by Binod Vaidya and Hussein T. Mouftah, underlines privacy concerns in the smart grid as well as emphasizing the aspects of privacy principles including privacy-by-design.
It provides a basis for a better understanding of current state-of-the-art privacy engineering along with privacy impact assessment and privacy-enhancing technologies.
Chapter 21 “Privacy-Preserving Power Charging Coordination Scheme in the Smart Grid,” authored by Ahmed Sherif, Muhammad Ismail, Marbin Pazos-Revilla, Mohamed Mahmoud, Kemal Akkaya, Erchin Serpedin, and Khalid Qaraqe, discusses the general security requirements for the smart grid and present potential cybersecurity solutions.
Chapter 22 “Securing Smart Cities Systems and Services:
A Risk-based AnalyticsDriven Approach,” authored by Mahmoud Gad and Ibrahim Abualhaol, proposes a risk-based analytics-driven approach to design and operation of smart city critical infrastructure.
In their approach, big data aggregated by different smart city systems and users is utilized by a fusion center analytics engine to provide functionalities to minimize the cybersecurity risk during operations.
Chapter 23 “Spatiotemporal Big Data Analysis for Smart Grids Based on Random Matrix Theory,” authored by Robert Qiu, Lei Chu, Xing He, Zenan Ling, and Haichun Liu, recognizes the fact that data are more and more easily accessible in smart grids.
Therefore, big data analytics and data-driven approaches become natural tools for the future grid. In this chapter, the authors provide interesting insights into these tools.
This book is designed to be a handbook for the researchers in the academia and the industry who desire to learn the state of the art and open issues in communication technologies for the transportation and power grid of the future smart cities.
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