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Renewable Energy in Power Systems by Leon Freris and David Infield | PDF Free Download.
There is worldwide agreement on the need to reduce greenhouse gas emissions, and different policies are evolving both internationally and locally to achieve this. On 10 January 2007, the EU Commission announced an Energy Package which was endorsed by the European Council.
The objectives are that by 2020 EU greenhouse gases are to be reduced by 30 % if a global agreement is arrived at or by 20 % unilaterally.
One of the vital components in the achievement of this goal is the intention to provide a 20 % share of energy from renewable energy (RE) sources in the overall EU energy mix. At present, wind power is the leading source of new renewable energy.
World wind power capacity has been growing rapidly at an average cumulative rate of 30 % over the last ten years.
About 20 GW of new capacity was installed in 2007 bringing the world total in that year to 94 GW. This annual investment represents around 25 billion euros by an industry that employs 200 000 people and supplies the electricity needs of 25 million households.
This considerable expansion has attracted investment from major manufacturing companies such as General Electric, Siemens, ABB, and Shell as well as numerous electricity utilities, notably E.ON and Scottish Power.
The future of wind power over the next two decades is bright indeed. The generation of electricity from the sun can be achieved directly using photovoltaic (PV) cells or through solar concentration to raise steam and drive conventional turbines.
Over the last few years, considerable progress has been made in the reduction of the cost of PV generated electricity, with 2006 seeing the total value of installed capacity reaching 15 billion euros and with cell global production in that year approaching 2.5 GW.
It is expected that further technology improvement and production cost reduction over the next decade will result in a wide-scale competitive generation from this source. Marine energy is an exciting, but less well-developed technology.
Tidal barrages, tidal stream turbines, and wave energy devices are all in the experimental and pre - commercial-stage but are expected to make a significant contribution by around 2015.
Geothermal energy is now established in countries like Iceland with a significant accessible resource, and as the technology develops could be taken up more widely.
Last but not least there are bioenergy and biofuels, important because they offer many of the advantages of fossil fuels, in particular being easily stored.
Not surprisingly they are receiving much attention from policymakers and researchers both in the EU and North America. Most of this renewable energy will be converted into electricity.
The renewable energy resource will be geographically highly distributed, and is mostly dependent on changing weather and climate cannot be directly controlled in the way fossil-fuelled generation is.
Electrical power networks were designed to operate from electricity generated in a few large power stations fuelled by coal, gas or uranium, fuels readily available on the international market and to varying degrees controllable.
Significantly increasing the input from renewable energy sources requires a revision of the way power systems are designed and operated in order to accommodate these variable sources better. This book is an introduction to this important topic.
The material in this book is largely based on a Master ’ s course module taught for over ten years at the Centre for Renewable Energy Systems Technology (CREST) at Loughborough University.
The course as a whole was designed to provide general technical education in all major electricity-generating renewable energy sources and their integration in electrical networks.
Students taking this course normally have first degrees in numerate topics ranging from Physics or Engineering to Environmental Science.
The course modules are therefore designed for students who, although they may be very knowledgeable in their specialty, will only have an elementary knowledge of other topics.
Likewise, this book assumes no previous knowledge in power systems engineering and guides the reader through the basic understanding of how a power system is put together and the way in which it ensures that the consumer demand is met from instant to instant.
The characteristics of traditional and renewable energy (RE) resources are described with special reference to the variability of the latter and the way this impacts on their utility.
These resources are available in a form that either has to be converted into electricity and/or their electrical output has to be conditioned before it can be fed into the grid.
The book covers these aspects and stresses the importance of power electronics technology in the process of power conditioning.
The power flows in an electricity network have to be appropriately controlled and the book addresses the way this is achieved when these new sources are integrated.
The economics of renewable sources will determine their take - up by the market, and this issue is also addressed, and in some detail.
Finally, an eye is cast on the future development of RE technologies and the way that power systems may evolve to accommodate them.
An Appendix is available for readers who require a more mathematical coverage of the way electricity is generated, transported and distributed to consumers.
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