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Control and Automation of Electrical Power Distribution Systems by James Northcote-Green and Robert Wilson | PDF Free Download.
James Northcote-Green, DFH, MSc E, MBA, IEE Fellow, C Eng, is a senior specialist for ABB Network Management, operating out of Vasteras in Sweden, specializing in distribution management systems, distribution automation, and network applications.
He also has regional sales responsibility for a number of countries, primarily in the Far East. An IEE Fellow with over 40 years in the power industry, he has held several responsibilities.
In the late 1990s, he was part of the ABB Distribution Solutions Business Area Management Team as vice president of business development (Solutions) and technology manager.
In the early 1990s in Europe, he was Product Manager, Distribution Management systems and real-time systems, and area sales manager for the British Isles.
In the 1980s in the U.S. as Manager of Distribution Technologies, Advanced Systems Technology, he was responsible for the development team for electric network distribution planning software (CADPAD), pioneering advanced techniques that were used by over 200 power companies worldwide.
He developed the concepts and led the team that resulted in the trouble call and control room management system, CADOPS.
He was a member of the founding committee for the U.S. CIRED organizing committee and conference reporter and technical committee member for Distributech Europe.
He is the author or co-author of more than 60 publications on electric power distribution systems.
Robert Wilson, BSc Eng, LLB, Ch Eng, IEE Fellow is the principal consultant for Abasi's International Consulting based in the U.K., working in the U.K. railway industry, with responsibility for asset management policy.
An IEE Fellow for many years, he has more than 30 years of experience in the electricity industry. For eight years he was the principal expert on distribution power systems for ABB based in Vasteras, Sweden, with responsibility for Asia and Europe.
In the early 1990s, as principal engineer, he was responsible for the specification, purchasing, and setting up all electrical plants in a major U.K. utility.
In the 1980s, as a senior engineer, he was responsible for the development of network reliability data from fault data and the development of system automation for the U.K.
He is the author or co-author of more than 40 technical papers on all aspects of distribution systems, presented at national and international conferences.
This is a reference and tutorial guide covering the automation of electric power distribution networks. Automation of electric distribution networks in its broadest sense ranges from the simple remote control to the application of automation logic and software-based decision tools.
The possibilities are endless, and the cost of implementation is directly related to the possibilities. A utility considering automation must be aware of and resolve a number of key issues.
First, it must assess the cost and feasibility of adding automation to existing switchgear against replacing existing equipment with more “automation-ready” gear.
Second, the type of control infrastructure and level of automation it wishes to consider (central or distributed, system or local, or combinations of these) and its implications on the communications system weighted against its availability and practicality.
Third, the ambition level it wishes to or is being forced (regulatory pressures) to achieve against the expenditure that is prudent. The ambition level is affected by the level of reliability and operating economies that must be achieved.
It is necessary to search for the key functions that will deliver the performance cost-effectively without detracting from the bottom line of utility business performance. Finally, in order for any automation solution to be implemented, it must be rationally justified through a business case.
Different business environments dictate very different evaluations, and such as utilities operating under the risk of performance-based penalties, will view energy not supplied with considerably more importance than those under traditional energy costing.
Control and Automation of Electric Power Distribution Systems address these four issues plus many related topics that should be considered in applying automation to power distribution networks.
The fundamentals around which a control and automation solution should be based are introduced.
These include such concepts as depth of control, boundaries of control responsibility, stages of automation, automation intensity level (AIL), distribution automation (DA), the distribution management system (DMS), substation automation (SA), feeder automation (FA), and automated device preparedness, all of which are introduced in Chapter 1.
Many of these concepts are explored in considerable detail since FA or extended control, automation outside the primary substation, forms the predominant topic of the book.
Chapter 2 covers the role of central control in the DA solution by summarizing SCADA, control room operations management, advanced applications as operator decision support aids, and outage management (OM).
A short section introduces the concepts of performance measures for real-time systems. The connectivity model of the distribution network is a foundation element in any DMS. Consequently, data and data modeling becomes the key to DMS implementation implications of which potential implementers should be aware of.
The importance of the data model and its implications of building interfaces with other business applications such as GIS are explained together, with the aims of the industry to standardize through the common information model (CIM) standard.
Chapter 3 introduces distribution design, planning, local control, comparison of network types, and network structure at an appropriate detail to assist in selecting the primary device and associated control.
The latter leads to the concept of the network complexity factor, for which relationships are developed for use later in the book.
Chapter 4 covers the fundamentals of the distribution primary equipment, circuit breakers, reclosers, sectionalizes, and various types of sensors (CTs, VTs) that will become part of the DA scheme and from which the concept of feeder automation building blocks will be proposed later in the book.
Chapter 5 extends the groundwork of the previous chapter necessary for developing the FA building blocks. Basic protection requirements for distribution networks are explained and the considerations that must be accounted for due to different grounding (earthing) practices.
Fault passage indicators (FPIs) and their application are explained in detail. Different types of intelligent electronic devices (IED) that are suitable for automating primary devices are described and their possible roles.
Finally, the need for automated switch power supplies, batteries, and duty cycle are explained. The final section of this chapter selects and appropriately assembles the devices described in this and the preceding chapter to propose FA building blocks.
Attention is given to all the interfaces between components that must be designed and tested to create an automation-ready device.
Chapter 6 moves the discussion to distribution network performance calculations, and how different automation strategies and selection of different FA building blocks can deliver improved performance.
The chapter summarizes the calculation of performance indices, the relationship between network complexity (NCF), and performance, together with different automation strategies.
The communication system is a key component for any DA implementation, and Chapter 7 introduces the subject in sufficient depth for the DA implementer to understand some of the intricacies of the topic.
Having summarized different communication media, the topic of wireless communications is covered from antennas through configuration management to gain calculations.
The wireless medium is followed by a thorough treatment of the distribution line carrier (DLC). Types of communications that may be suitable for DA are summarized, with advantages and disadvantages.
The structure of protocols is explained, and finally, the requirements for dimensioning communications systems are treated.
Chapter 8 develops the techniques necessary to justify DA. It is started by introducing the concept of direct and indirect benefits both of which can be hard or soft. The ideas of generic benefits, the benefits opportunity matrix, and benefit flow charts are explained.
The dependency of DA functions, not only implemented on the hardware but also the possibility of double-counting through shared benefits, is introduced.
Methods for calculating benefits from capital deferral, energy not supplied, man-time savings, including a unique approach to crew travel time savings CTS (using Wilson’s curve), are given.
The final section draws the reader’s attention to the importance of assigning the correct economic value when quantifying energy-related benefits.
The chapter concludes by returning to the hard/soft classification of benefits as a way to present the quantitative results of the business case.
Chapter 9 concludes the book with two example case studies that draw on the ideas in the previous chapters to illustrate diverse situations in which the positive business case for distribution automation was successfully made.
As utilities continue to strive for better economies through improved management of their distribution network assets, DA is one of the tools at their disposal.
All the topics in this book will give decision-makers a useful guide to all the issues to be investigated and decided as they embark on the solution definition and justification.
This book covers a range of topics and would not have been completed without the tremendous input of some of our enthusiastic colleagues.
The authors want to thank particularly the major contributions to Chapter 7 of Josef Lehmann, formerly of ABB and now Cipunet, of John Gardener, telecommunication expert within the U.K. railway industry, and Anders Grahn and Hans Ottosson of Radius Communications Sweden.
The suggestions and contributions of Gunnar Bjorkmann and Carl-Gustav Lundqvist for Chapter 2 improved the SCADA, performance measurement, and data modeling sections significantly.
We also want to acknowledge the input of Reinhard Kuessel and Dr. Ulrich Kaizer for the material in Chapter 2 on advanced applications.
The book would never have been conceived if it were not for the strategic thinking of ABB senior managers, led by Andrew Eriksson, who identified the need to take a fresh look at feeder automation, which resulted in the funding of a project aimed at investigating DA.
A further thank you is expressed to the late Ted Holmes, a senior member of the U.K. utility industry and author, for his worthwhile suggestions and review.
The authors wish to thank members of the ABB team who were assigned to this project, namely, Dr. David Hart, Dr. Peter Dondi, Arnie Svenne, Matti Heinonen, Tapani Tiitola, Erkki Antila, Jane Soderblom, Duncan Botting, Graeme McClure, and Karl LaPlace, for their original contributions to many aspects of FA, which have been included in the book.
The continued support of ABB Network Management in allowing significant reference and inclusion of technical topics have been invaluable.
We also want to thank Jay Margolis and the other staff of Taylor and Francis for their involvement and efforts to make this book a quality effort.
Last but not least, we thank our colleague and collaborator of many years, Lee Willis, who encouraged and cudgeled us to write down that which we had experienced and learned.
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