Thermal Power Plant Design and Operation by Dipak K. Sarkar
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Thermal Power Plant Design and Operation by Dipak K. Sarkar

PREFACE to Thermal Power Plant Design and Operation by Dipak K. Sarkar

This book on THERMAL POWER PLANT   Design and Operation deals with various aspects of a thermal power plant starting from fundamentals leading in depth to technical treatment.

The book is aimed at providing new dimension to the subject and thrust of the book is focused on technology and design aspect with special treatment on plant operating practices and troubleshooting. Certain chapters also deal with numerical problems along with some worked out examples.

This Thermal Power Plant Design and Operation book is prepared based on author’s long association with thermal power plants for more than 40 years in design as well as in field engineering.

During this long carrier, author has shared his knowledge and experience with students of various technical institutes as visiting faculty in the under graduate level and found that students are very attentive to his lectures because they found contents of these lectures would be beneficial to their professional carrier.

The author also shared his experience with professional engineers under various training schemes, viz. graduate engineers training programme, refreshers training programme, operating personnel training programme.

Against the back drop of feedback received during interaction with engineers at various forums, this Thermal Power Plant Design and Operation book aims at sharing author’s experience with much wider group of engineers.

The book is so developed as to be used as a core text by Mechanical/Power Engineering students at the undergraduate level and as a special paper on Heat & Work in the Postgraduate level.

Diploma engineering students who intend to specialize in Thermal/Power Engineering can use this as a text book.

This Thermal Power Plant Design and Operation book can also be used as a reference book in Power Plant Training Institutes and in Graduate Engineers Training Programme on power plants.

To Utility Operators and Design Engineers this Thermal Power Plant Design and Operation book would be of immense help as reference book and to execute day-to-day activities.

This Thermal Power Plant Design and Operation book on one side addresses basic design aspects of thermal power plants to make it attractive to students pursuing mechanical/power engineering courses, on the other side it discusses how safely to run these plants so that utility operators find it handy as an useful guide book.

Design of a thermal power plant is based on the science of thermodynamics. Chapter 1 deals with treatment on fundamentals of thermodynamics, and comprises vapour cycles, their evolution, merits-demerits and their applications.

Chapter 2 discusses on steam generator covers boiling, circulation, classification, design of heat transfer areas. The intricacies of supercritical boiler are addressed separately.

Fuels and combustion are covered in Chapter 3 elaborating sources, availability, characteristics of fuel, combustion calculation, and design aspects of fuel handling.

From global trend the International Energy Agency (IEA) forecast that coal will remain a dominant fuel worldwide through 2035 for the purpose of power generation. Hence, pulverized coal fired boiler is discussed separately in Chapter 4 in view of large global coal reserves and its acceptance as major power producer in many countries.

Chapter 5 covers fluidized bed boiler that can burn lower grade of coal and other low grade combustible material for the generation of steam.

Steam turbine is the prime mover of steam power plant, and Chapter 6 deals with introduction, type, governing and speed control, losses, performance of steam turbine.

For quick start-up and peak load generation, gas turbine is ideal. Chapter 7 covers introduction, combustion system, and performance of gas turbine.

This chapter also covers design, benefits, and use of heat recovery steam generator (HRSG) that facilitates improvement of the efficiency of a gas turbine power plant.

Chapter 8 deals with diesel power plant. Its design, equipment, and associated systems are addressed in this chapter. A thermal power plant comprises miscellaneous systems comprising electric power supply and distribution systems, as well as solid (coal, ash),

liquid (water, oil, acid, alkali) and gaseous (steam, air, flue gas, natural gas, hydrogen) matter supply and distribution systems.

Description and purpose of these systems of a steam power plant are covered in Chapter 9. Operation of modern large power plants is very complex in nature.

It requires lot of activities to be executed simultaneously in order to ensure safety of equipment and personnel, as well as stable operation of the unit efficiently.

Although discussion on whole gamut of such activities is difficult to be accommodated in this Thermal Power Plant Design and Operation book, an attempt is made to address key aspects of these issues.

Thus, Chapter 10 covers automatic control of key parameters of steam generator, steam turbine, and regenerative system.

Chapter 11 is developed to address interlock & protection system of steam generator, steam turbine, gas turbine, diesel engine, and generator (alternator).

While Chapter 12 covers start-up and shut down of steam generator, steam turbine, gas turbine, and diesel engine; their abnormal operating conditions are discussed in Chapter 13. Air pollution control is addressed in Chapter 14.

This chapter covers emission control of SPM, GHG, SOx, and NOx generated from a coal-fired steam generator. More often than not design engineers get confused and search blindly which code and/or standard are to be followed to design a particular equipment or system.

Chapter 15 presents purpose, benefits, and a list of commonly used codes and standards for design and operation of thermal power plants.

Fossil fuels are basically polluting in nature and are major producer of greenhouse gases causing global warming.

Hence, to make these fuels environmentally acceptable cost intensive different types of treatment plants are essential to be installed.

To mitigate such complexities and investments, a viable alternative is to adopt renewable energy sources. These sources do not produce greenhouse gases and are free from emitting toxic wastes.

So in continuation to aforementioned chapters, a brief discussion on Power from Renewable Energy is addressed under Appendix A.

It is more so since renewable energy provides about 16% of global energy consumption. It is of major concern that on one hand global supply of fossil fuels is depleting; on the other hand world’s demand of electricity is rising sharply.

As a result, utilities look at nuclear energy as a savior source of bulk power producer. This energy does not produce any air pollution, hence is an attractive alternative in the arena of electricity production even though the reactor area is a potential source of radioactivity and needs special safeguard devices.

Appendix B discusses briefly Power from Nuclear Energy. In accordance with current global practice, SI units have been used all through the book. Nevertheless, for the convenience of readers Conversion Factors from SI units to Metric System of units to Imperial & US System of units are addressed under Appendix C.

Author would earnestly welcome any suggestion for the improvement of the contents of this Thermal Power Plant Design and Operation book both by supplementing with additional information in existing chapters

and/or by addressing other areas in consonance with the present intention of this Thermal Power Plant Design and Operation book. These suggestions would be acknowledged gratefully by the author.

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