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Petroleum Reservoir Simulation A Basic Approach by Jamal H. Abou-Kassem, S. M. Farouq Ali, and M. Rafiq Islam | PDF Free Download.
The "Information Age" promises infinite transparency, unlimited productivity, and true access to knowledge. Knowledge, quite distinct and apart from "know-how," requires a process of thinking, or imagination--the attribute that sets human beings apart.
Imagination is necessary for anyone wishing to make decisions based on science. Imagination always begins with visualization--actually, another term for simulation.
Under normal conditions, we simulate a situation prior to making any decision, i.e., we abstract absence and start to fill in the gaps. Reservoir simulation is no exception.
The two most important points that must not be overlooked in the simulation are science and multiplicity of solutions. Science is the essence of knowledge, and acceptance of the multiplicity of solutions is the essence of science.
Science, not restricted by the notion of a single solution to every problem, must follow imagination. The multiplicity of solutions has been promoted as an expression of uncertainty.
This leads not to science or to new authentic knowledge, but rather to creating numerous models that generate "unique" solutions that fit a predetermined agenda of the decision-makers. This book reestablishes the essential features of simulation and applies them to reservoir engineering problems.
This approach, which reconnects with the old--or in other words, time-tested--concept of knowledge, is refreshing and novel in the Information Age. The petroleum industry is known as the biggest user of computer models.
Even though space research and weather prediction models are robust and are often tagged as "the mother of all simulation," the fact that a space probe device or a weather balloon can be launched--while a vehicle capable of moving around in a petroleum reservoir cannot make modeling more vital for tackling problems in the petroleum reservoir than in any other discipline.
Indeed, from the advent of computer technology, the petroleum industry pioneered the use of computer simulations in virtually all aspects of decision-making. This revolutionary approach required significant investment in long-term research and the advancement of science.
At that time, when the petroleum industry was the energy provider of the world, was synonymous with its reputation as the most aggressive investor in engineering and science.
More recently, however, as the petroleum industry transited into its "middle age" in a business sense, the industry could not keep up its reputation as the biggest sponsor of engineering and long-term research.
A recent survey by the United States Department of Energy showed that none of the top ten breakthrough petroleum technologies in the last decade could be attributed to operating companies.
If this trend continues, major breakthroughs in the petroleum industry over the next two decades are expected to be in the areas of information technology and materials science.
When it comes to reservoir simulators, this latest trend in the petroleum industry has produced an excessive emphasis on the tangible aspects of modeling, namely, the number of blocks used in a simulator, graphics, computer speed, etc.
For instance, the number of blocks used in a reservoir model has gone from thousands to millions in just a few years. Other examples can be cited, including graphics in which flow visualization has leaped from 2D to 3D to 4D, and computer processing speeds that make it practically possible to simulate reservoir activities in real-time.
While these developments outwardly appear very impressive, the lack of science and, in essence, true engineering renders the computer revolution irrelevant and quite possibly dangerous. In the last decade, most investments have been made in software dedicated to visualization and computer graphics with little being invested in physics or mathematics.
Engineers today have little appreciation of what physics and mathematics provide for the very framework of all the fascinating graphics that are generated by commercial reservoir simulators.
As companies struggle to deal with scandals triggered by Enron's collapse, few have paid attention to the lack of any discussion in engineering education regarding what could be characterized as scientific fundamentals.
Because of this lack, little has been done to promote innovation in reservoir simulation, particularly in the areas of physics and mathematics, the central topical content of reservoir engineering. This book provides a means of understanding the underlying principles of petroleum reservoir simulation.
The focus is on basic principles because understanding these principles is a prerequisite to developing more accurate advanced models. Once the fundamentals are understood, further development of more useful simulators is only a matter of time.
The book takes a truly engineering approach and elucidates the principles behind formulating the governing equations. In contrast to cookbook-type recipes of step-by-step procedures for manipulating a black box, this approach is full of insights.
To paraphrase the caveat about computing proposed by R. W. Hamming, the inventor of the Hamming Code: the purpose of simulation must be insight, not just numbers. The conventional approach is more focused on packaging than on insight, making the simulation process more opaque than transparent.
The formulation of governing equations is followed by elaborate treatment of boundary conditions. This is one aspect that is usually left to the engineers to "figure out" by themselves, unfortunately creating an expanding niche for the select few who own existing commercial simulators.
As anyone who has ever engaged in developing a reservoir simulator well knows, this process of figuring out by oneself is utterly confusing. In keeping up with the same rigor of treatment, this book presents the discretization scheme for both block-centered and point-distributed grids.
The difference between a well and a boundary condition is elucidated. In the same breath, we present an elaborate treatment of the radial grid for single-well simulation.
This particular application has become very important due to the increased usage of reservoir simulators to analyze well test results and the use of well pseudo-functions. This aspect is extremely important for any reservoir engineering study.
The book continues to give insight into other areas of reservoir simulation. For instance, we discuss the effect of boundary conditions on material balance-check equations and other topics with unparalleled lucidity.
Even though the book is written principally for reservoir simulation developers, it takes an engineering approach that has not been taken before. Topics are discussed in terms of science and mathematics, rather than with graphical representation in the backdrop.
This makes the book suitable and in fact essential for every engineer and scientist engaged in modeling and simulation. Even those engineers and scientists who wish to limit their activities to field applications will benefit greatly from this book, which is bound to prepare them better for the Information Age.
In this book, the basics of reservoir simulation are presented through the modeling of single-phase fluid flow and multi-phase flow in petroleum reservoirs using the engineering approach.
This text is written for senior-level B.S. students and first-year M.S. students studying petroleum engineering and aims to restore engineering and physics sense to the subject.
In this way, it challenges the misleading impact of excess mathematical glitter that has dominated reservoir simulation books in the past. The engineering approach employed in this book uses mathematics extensively but injects engineering meaning to differential equations and to boundary conditions used in reservoir simulation.
It does not need to deal with differential equations as a means for modeling, and it interprets boundary conditions as fictitious wells that transfer fluids across reservoir boundaries. The contents of the book can be taught in two consecutive courses.
The first, an undergraduate senior-level course, includes the use of a block-centered grid in rectangular coordinates in single-phase flow simulation.
This material is mainly included in Chapters 2, 3, 4, 6, 7, and 9. The second, a graduate-level course, deals with a block-centered grid in radial-cylindrical coordinates, a point-distributed grid in both rectangular and radial-cylindrical coordinates, and the simulation of multiphase flow in petroleum reservoirs
. This material is covered in Chapters 5, 8, and 10 in addition to specific sections in Chapters 2, 4, 6, and 7 (Secs. 2.7, 4.5, 6.2.2).
Chapter 1 provides an overview of reservoir simulation and the relationship between the mathematical approach presented in simulation books and the engineering approach presented in this book.
In Chapter 2, we present the derivation of single-phase, multidimensional flow equations in rectangular and radial-cylindrical coordinate systems.
In Chapter 3, we introduce the Control Volume Finite Difference (CVFD) terminology as a means of writing the flow equations in multidimensions in a compact form.
Then we write the general flow equation that incorporates both (real) wells and boundary conditions, using the block centered grid (in Chapter 4) and the point-distributed grid (in Chapter 5), and present the corresponding treatments of boundary conditions as fictitious wells and the exploitation of symmetry in practical reservoir simulation.
Chapter 6 deals with wells completed in both single and multiple layers and presents fluid flow rate equations for different well-operating conditions.
Chapter 7 presents the explicit, implicit, and Crank-Nicolson formulations of single-phase, slightly compressible, and compressible flow equations and introduces the incremental and cumulative material balance equations as internal checks to monitor the accuracy of generated solutions.
In Chapter 8, we introduce the space and time treatments of nonlinear terms encountered in single-phase flow problems.
Chapter 9 presents the basic direct and iterative solution methods of linear algebraic equations used in reservoir simulation.
Chapter 10 is entirely devoted to multiphase flow in petroleum reservoirs and its simulation. The book concludes with Appendix A, which presents a user's manual for a single-phase simulator. The CD that accompanies the book includes a single-phase simulator written in FORTRAN 95, a compiled version, a users' manual, and data and output files for four solved problems.
The single-phase simulator provides users with intermediate results as well as a solution to single-phase flow problems so that a user's solution can be checked and errors are identified and corrected. Educators may use the simulator to make up new problems and obtain their solutions.
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