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Distillation and Vapor Pressure Measurement in Petroleum Products by Rey G. Montemayor | PDF Free Download.
ASTM International has been developing standards that are widely used worldwide since 1898. The technical content and quality of these standards are excellent, and these are largely due to the thousands of technical experts who volunteer and devote a considerable amount of their time and effort in the standards development activities.
In ASTM Committee D02 on Petroleum Products and Lubricants, one of the largest ASTM committees, a tremendous amount of activity is spent in developing new test methods, and revising existing test methods to meet ever-increasing demands for high-quality standards in the industry.
ASTM D02 is blessed with a considerable number of technical experts who, in one way or another, have contributed tremendously to standards development related to petroleum products and lubricants.
This manual is the result of the selfless effort, time, dedication, and considerable expertise of some of these experts.
THOSE OF US ASSOCIATED WITH THE PETROLEUM industry know that crude oil and the various petroleum fractions and products derived from it consist of a complex mixture of various components, mostly hydrocarbons. Some of these components are quite volatile, and some are not so volatile.
It is fairly recognized that different petroleum fractions and products have inherent volatility characteristics. Volatility is defined as the tendency or ability of a material to change from a liquid state to a gaseous state.
When dealing with petroleum products, the principal volatility characteristics that are significant are distillation, vapor pressure, and flammability.
This manual deals with the practice of distillation and vapor pressure measurement either in the laboratory or at on-line facilities.
Although flammability characteristics of various petroleum products measured by flashpoint determination provide significant volatility information, this work specifically excludes discussion of flash point measurement because there is a separate manual currently being written on the subject of flash point measurement in petroleum products.
The chapters that follow provide information and discussions on the different aspects of measuring distillation and vapor pressure characteristics, with the purpose of clarifying and providing a better understanding of the various test methods.
This work focuses on current standard test methods used by practitioners of distillation and vapor pressure measurements in the petroleum industry worldwide.
Specifically, the standard test methods discussed are American Society for Testing and Materials ASTM International test methods, recognizing that there are equivalent and/or similar standard test methods in other countries as well.
A cross-reference of ASTM with other national standards from various countries if known or available are given in the appropriate chapters.
The significance and use of the measured distillation and vapor pressure characteristics are covered in the chapters on specific petroleum products, such as spark-ignition engine fuels, diesel, and other middle distillate fuels, aviation fuels, crude oil, liquefied petroleum gas, and hydrocarbon solvents.
Laboratory testing or measurement of the various properties and characteristics of various petroleum fractions and products serves to provide information about these materials, which can be used for research purposes, refinery plant control, and verifying the conformance to specified values in product specifications.
Necessarily, the complexity of the test methods used must be consistent with the accuracy required to provide convenient and timely data about the characteristics of the materials being tested.
The test methods must be standardized so that reproducible results may be obtained by different operators in the various regions or parts of the world using similar test equipment.
ASTM test methods are widely used all over the world, and the test methods and specifications covered in this work are prime examples of standardized test methods that have withstood the test of time since their early inception.
This work is intended to be a hands-on, practical reference manual for test operators, laboratory technicians, laboratory technologists, research workers, laboratory managers, and others, who need to have a good understanding of the routine measurement test method and procedures used to determine the characteristics and properties of various petroleum products.
There is no intention to elaborate on the physical chemistry and thermodynamic concepts of these chemical properties.
There are other works that deal with these properties in much greater technical detail, but such technical details are outside the scope of this manual.
This manual aims to provide information that will be helpful for the practitioners of routine petroleum test measurements, provide a better understanding of the standard test methods used to characterize these types of materials, and offer insight on how these measured properties apply to and affect the performance of these products.
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