|Book Details :|
Petroleum Refining Technology and Economics 4th Edition by James H. Gary and Glenn E. Handwerk| PDF Free Download.
Today refiners are facing investments of billions of dollars in equipment to meet environmental requirements frequently set by political stipulation with little regard to true economic and environmental impacts.
Guidelines set up by laws and regulations are changed frequently. Since the design and building of new processing units entail several years of lead time,
Refiners are reluctant to commit millions or billions of dollars to constructing equipment that may no longer meet requirements when the units come on stream.
For the ‘‘short-term’’ period much effort is being devoted to the development of reformulated fuels that have a minimal impact on degradation of the environment.
We say ‘‘short-term’’ because laws have already been passed stipulating that within the next two decades hydrocarbon fuel will not be acceptable and only totally nonpolluting fuels will be acceptable.
At the present time the only nonpolluting fuels specified are solar and electric energy and hydrogen. This allows only a short time for the petroleum industry to recover the large investment required to meet the present legal requirements.
It is apparent that the survivors of this period will be those companies utilizing the experience and skill of their engineers and scientists to the highest possible level of efficiency.
In writing this edition, we have taken the new environmental aspects of the industry into account, as well as the use of heavier crude oils and crude oils with higher sulfur and metal content.
All these criteria affect the processing options and the processing equipment required in a modern refinery.
The basic aspects of current petroleum-refining technology and economics are presented in a systematic manner suitable for ready reference by technical managers, practicing engineers, university faculty members, and graduate or senior students in chemical engineering.
In addition, the environmental aspects of refinery fuels and the place of reformulated fuels in refinery product distribution are covered.
The physical and chemical properties of petroleum and petroleum products are described, along with major refining processes.
Data for determination of typical product yields, investment, and operating costs for all major refining processes and for supporting processes are also given.
The investment, operating cost, and utility data given herein are typical average recent data. As such, this information is suitable for approximating the economics of various refining configurations.
The information is not sufficiently accurate for definitive comparisons of competing processes. The yield data for reaction processes have been extended to allow complete material balances to be made from physical properties.
Insofar as possible, data for catalytic reactions represent average yields for competing proprietary catalysts and processes.
The material is organized to utilize the case-study method of learning. An example case-study problem begins in Chapter 4 (Crude Distillation) and concludes in Chapter 18 (Economic Evaluation).
The appendices contain basic engineering data and a glossary of refining terms. Valuable literature references are noted throughout the book.
We have held responsible positions in refinery operation, design, and evaluation, and have taught practical approaches to many refinery problems.
This publication relies heavily on our direct knowledge of refining in addition to the expertise shared with us by our numerous associates and peers.
Appreciation is expressed to the many people who contributed data and suggestions incorporated into this book.