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Gasoline, Diesel, and Ethanol Biofuels from Grasses and Plants by Ram B. Gupta and Ayhan Demirbas | PDF Free Download.
The world is currently faced with two significant problems: fossil fuel depletion and environmental degradation. The problems are continuously being exacerbated due to the increasing global population and per capita energy consumption.
To overcome the problems, renewable energy has been receiving increasing attention due to a variety of environmental, economic, and societal benefits.
First-generation biofuels (ethanol from sugar or corn, and biodiesel from vegetable oils) are already in the market, and second-generation biofuels from nonfood biomass are under development.
The goal of this book is to introduce readers to the biofuels obtained from nonfood biomass, and for reference to provide the technologies involved in first-generation biofuels derived from food sources.
Chapter 1 discusses various nonrenewable (petroleum, natural gas, coal) and renewable forms of energy, and describes air pollution and greenhouse gas emission caused by the use of fossil fuels. Recent concerns about carbon dioxide emissions, carbon sequestration, and carbon credits are discussed in Chapter 2.
Chapter 3 provides an in-depth description of various renewable energy sources, including biomass; hydropower; geothermal, wind, solar, and ocean energy; and biogas.
For the production of biofuels, the global availability of biomass is discussed in Chapter 4 along with the characterization and variations of biomass. Conventional ethanol production from corn or sugarcane by fermentation technology is discussed in Chapter 5.
Current techniques and various unit operations involved are presented, including saccharification, fermentation, distillation, and dehydration. The second-generation ethanol from cellulose is described in Chapter 6.
It provides in-depth coverage of various pretreatment techniques that are critical to the cost-effective production of cellulosic ethanol. In addition, xylose fermentation to improve the ethanol yield is discussed.
Chapter 7 discusses the production of biodiesel from vegetable oil by transesterification. The fuel properties of biodiesel are compared with those of petroleum diesel.
Chapter 8 concerns the production of diesel from biomass. Processing of biomass gasification followed by Fischer–Tropsch synthesis of diesel and other liquid fuels is discussed.
Chapter 9 outlines the production of bio-oil from biomass by the pyrolysis process. Various reactor designs for fast pyrolysis are described along with the fuel properties of bio-oil, including its upgradation.
Chapter 10 deals with the production of bio-crude by hydrothermal liquefaction of biomass, in which various aspects of production and up-gradation are presented to obtain fuel comparable to petroleum liquids.
Chapter 11 discusses the use of wind and solar energy to enhance biofuel production from biomass. The process of heating and electricity needs can be satisfied so that a higher amount of biomass carbon is converted to liquid fuels.
Chapters 12 and 13 discuss the environmental and economic impacts of biofuels, respectively. Chapter 14 summarizes the current biofuel policies of major countries that are promoting biofuel production and use
. This book strives to serve as a comprehensive document to present various technological pathways and environmental and economic issues related to biofuels.
As petroleum reserves are depleted, the world is faced with finding alternatives. Currently, the transport sector depends almost entirely on petroleum liquids (diesel, gasoline, jet fuel, kerosene), and to fill the gap, biofuel can provide a replacement.
However, alternatives to petroleum must be technically feasible, economically competitive, environmentally acceptable, and easily available.
The authors are thankful for assistance from various people in the preparation of this manuscript, including Mr. Sandeep Kumar, Mrs. Sweta Kumari, Dr. Lingzhao Kong, Mrs. Hema Ramsurn, and Prof. Sushil Adhikari.
In addition, support from our families Deepti, Pranjal, and Rohan Gupta; Elmas, Temucin, Kursat, Muhammet, Ayse Hilal, and Burak Demirbas was key to the completion of this book.
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