Introduction to Physical Metallurgy by Sidney H. Avner
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Introduction to Physical Metallurgy by Sidney H. Avner

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Introduction to Physical Metallurgy Contents

  1. Metal Structure and Crystallization
  2. Plastic Deformation
  3. Annealing and Hot Working
  4. Constitution of Alloys
  5. Phase Diagrams
  6. The Iron-Iron Carbide Equilibrium Diagram
  7. The Heat Treatment of Steel
  8. Alloy Steels
  9. Tool Steels
  10. Cast Iron
  11. Nonferrous Metals and Alloys
  12. Metals at High and Low Temperatures
  13. Wear of Metals
  14. Corrosion of Metals
  15. Powder Metallurgy
  16. Failure Analysis

Preface to Introduction to Physical Metallurgy

The emphasis of the second edition of this text remains on the basic concepts and applications of physical metallurgy.

The level of this edition is also essentially unchanged. The text is still considered appropriate for the teaching of physical metallurgy to students who are not majors in metallurgy as well as to engineering students as an introductory course.

It has also proved useful for technician training programs in the industry. The fundamental concepts are still presented in a simplified form yet as accurately as possible.

The only background required is an elementary course in physics. During the past decade, the first edition of this text was found to be quite effective, and many favorable comments were received from both students and faculty members.

However, advances in certain areas and suggestions from users have necessitated a revision of the first edition.

The following is a summary of the most notable improvements in the second edition:

In Chapter 1, which covers some of the important tools and tests in the field of metallurgy, the section on nondestructive testing has been expanded to include eddy current testing and holography.

The latest ASTM code has been used in the section on hardness testing. Some changes have been made in Chapter 2 in order to make the simplified explanation of atomic and metal structure more understandable. A brief explanation of x-ray diffraction and grain size measurement was added.

Chapters 3 and 4 which cover the fundamentals of plastic deformation and the effect of heat on cold-worked materials remain essentially the same except for an expanded discussion of dislocations and fracture.

Chapter 6, on binary phase diagrams, now includes diffusion, a more detailed explanation of the theory of age hardening, and more actual phase diagrams as illustrations.

Chapter 7 which considers the iron-iron carbide equilibrium diagram in some detail now also discusses wrought iron and the effect of small quantities of other elements on the properties of steel.

The section on case hardening of steel in Chapter 8 has been expanded to include a more detailed explanation of nitriding, flame hardening and induction hardening. A section on hardenable carbon steels has also been added.

In Chapter 9, the portion on stainless steels now encompasses new sections on precipitation-hardening stainless steels, maraging steels, and ausforming.

In Chapter 10 the section on cemented carbide tools has been expanded and a new section on ceramic tools has been added.

Chapter 11 now covers only cast iron and has been enhanced by additional diagrams. lustrate various nonferrous microstructures.

An entire section on titanium and titanium alloys has been included because of their increased commercial importance.

The chapter on wear of metals has been moved next to the one on corrosion of metals to improve the continuity of subject matter.

Chapter 15 now discusses the corrosion of metals in greater detail. A brief discussion of the powder metallurgy processing techniques has been added to Chapter 16.

There are two major changes in this edition as compared to the first edition.

  1. The replacement of Chapter 17 on extractive metallurgy by an entirely new chapter on failure analysis. It was felt that extractive metallurgy was not really part of physical metallurgy and that a chapter on failure analysis would be of greater interest and value to technicians and engineers.
  2. The addition of a glossary of terms related to physical metallurgy.

There IS very little on the details of operation of heat-treating and testing equipment since they are covered in the laboratory course which is taken in conjunction with the theory course. Numerous photomicrographs have been used to illustrate typical structures.

Many tables have been included to present representative data on commercial alloys.

Many companies have contributed generously from their publications and credit is given where possible. I make no particular claim for originality of material.

The information of other al~thors and industrial companies has been drawn upon. The only justification for this book, then, lies in the particular topics covered, their sequence, and the way in which they are presented.

I would like to express my appreciation to Miss Barbara Worth for typing most of the first edition manuscript,

To Mrs. Helen Braff and Mrs. Lillian Schwartz for typing the second edition material, and finally to my wife, without whose patience and understanding this book could never have been written.

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