What are the necessary requirements to move from a piping or pipeline system idea to its completion? The basic premise of this book is that at the heart of those requirements are a series of calculations, which cover a wide range of subjects. In any pipeline system, the core of the system itself is the piping, which is its skeleton. However, as with any skeleton, there must be other elements to include before the system can become the final entity that was the original idea.
Pipe is basically a transport structure. To determine what that structure requires would involve what it is intended to transport. While it is important to have knowledge of how the medium to be transported is generated, this book does not address that area. Generation of that comes from another field of expertise. A pipe system has a beginning, an ending, and a path between the two points. To transport the medium liquid or gas some definition of temperatures, pressures, amount to be transported per unit of time, and the energy required to accomplish the transport need to be, at least partially, established.
Many of these will be considered as a given in this book and the methods of calculating the other elements are discussed and explained. The base codes for the design of a new system, and the ones used in this book as the reference source, are the B31 piping codes of the American Society of Mechanical Engineers (ASME). The B31 piping codes consist of several sections or books that describe the requirements for systems of a specific type. These can readily be broken into the two basic types a piping system and a pipeline system.
The differences between the two are that a piping system can be generically defined as being inside a localized area to connect various vessels that are for reaction and/or storage. A pipeline system is more like a pure transport medium between two geographical positions. Within both are elements of the other. There are many pipelines within a plant or localized area, and along the pipelines between distant points are stations that have piping systems necessary for some pipeline element such as a compressor station.
For these reasons, the various sections or books of the B31 codes allow piping system owners to determine which code would apply to their particular project. In making this decision the owners are also advised to take into account which code the jurisdiction(s) for their projects might consider applicable. All system requirements basically set standards of calculation to establish a safe end result. Those qualification standards are outlined with specific calculation procedures in the codes.
Some things are required to be taken into account without details of how to consider them. Some calculations require base calculations to arrive at the point where the code calculation can be used. In this book, we address many of the grayer areas. As one goes through the steps of meeting the requirements of particular codes, he or she will also find many other standards included by reference. This is a practical way for the codes to cover many common elements in the design and construction of a system.
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