|Book Details :|
Mahendra S. Hundal is the editor of Mechanical Life Cycle Environmental Design and Manufacturing Book.
Design for the environment (DFE), also called ‘‘green design’’ or ‘‘environmentally friendly design,’’ is one of the greatest challenges facing engineers today and one that offers great potential benefits to society.
DFE addresses the problem of waste and pollution at the design stage, where the potential for effecting results is the greatest.
The decisions made at the design stage affect all phases of a product’s life—manufacturing, transportation, operation, maintenance, and disposal.
The traditional field of environmental engineering, on the other hand, deals with waste and pollution after the fact (i.e., after they have been generated) and with methods of mitigating environmental damage.
The need to develop products that minimize environmental damage has become increasingly evident. Products are important in fulfilling human needs, but the side effects of production—pollution and the depletion of natural resources—must also be of concern to designers and manufacturers.
This Mechanical Life Cycle Environmental Design and Manufacturing handbook is divided into the following parts: General Concepts, Product Planning, Design and Manufacturing, Industrial Practice, and Management Aspects (Mechanical Life Cycle Environmental Design and Manufacturing).
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Chapter 1 introduces DFE and the process of life cycle engineering (LCE). The product realization process (PRP) is described from the traditional perspective and from the perspective of the life cycle.
The chapter also discusses consumption and waste of energy and material resources, as well as the environmental requirements of product development(Mechanical Life Cycle Environmental Design and Manufacturing).
In Chapter 2, Conway-Schempf and Hendrickson present an overview of life cycle assessment (LCA), defining its terminology and providing a historical perspective on LCA stages and methods.
Two case studies in the chapter show the results of using alternative materials in, respectively, drinking cups (paper vs. polystyrene bead) and pavement (asphalt vs. concrete).
Chapter 3, by Caudill et al., introduces an extension of LCA—multi– life cycle assessment (MLCA)—that focuses on quantifying the materials, energy, and environmental burdens associated with end-of-life options and on the value of returning parts and materials back into use.
This chapter presents MLCA software as a tool for analyzing and comparing environmental impacts, energy consumption, and costs of various products.
In Chapter 4, Billatos focuses on design methodologies for the environment, providing an overview of the product life cycle, DFE drivers, and DFE guidelines. The author describes applications of DFE in the German automobile industry, consumer appliances, and packaging design(Mechanical Life Cycle Environmental Design and Manufacturing).
Chapter 5 examines the laws and regulations that drive DFE in the United States. It describes major U.S. environmental regulations, their effectiveness, and their necessity, and considers the interaction of laws, economics, and product/process innovation.
In Chapter 6, Dammert et al. address the environmental laws and market-driven requirements in Europe, including those for the European Community in general, and those in Finland, Sweden, and Germany in particular.
The authors also discuss the regulations for environmental management and environmental labeling and declarations, including an extensive list of European information sources and references.
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In Chapter 10, Birkhofer and Gru¨ner present a methodology for DFE that emphasizes marketing needs and computer support for the process. They present strategies and rules for DFE and examine conflicts between environmental and marketing requirements.
The chapter also includes a discussion of procedures and computer support for an integrated product and process design that considers each life phase of the product—from raw materials extraction through disposal (Mechanical Life Cycle Environmental Design and Manufacturing).
Chapter 11, by Anderl et al., shows the development of a model-based approach for assessment and optimization of a product based upon ecological considerations. The authors discuss the implementation of a threetiered model in terms of information sources, system components, and system architecture.
In order to create the underlying information model, the modeling tool integrates both process- and object-oriented modeling languages. In Chapter 12, Sauer et al. investigate the significance of user behavior in ecological design and introduce an LCA-based environmental impact assessment.
The authors present a model for understanding user behavior that focuses on the interaction of the user with the system.
The chapter ends with an evaluation of trade-offs between ecological and commercial requirements. Chapter 13, by Nicolaou et al., introduces a domain-independent mathematical model for design and manufacturing process analysis (Mechanical Life Cycle Environmental Design and Manufacturing).
The model employs multicriteria optimization and begins with a qualitative correlation between evaluation criteria (cost, reliability, environmental impact) and design decision variables (life phases, with emphasis on disposal alternatives.)
Examples provided focus on computer products to facilitate product take-back, disassembly, and product reuse over multiple life cycles, and on the integration of statistical analysis of a machining process.
In Chapter 14, Sriram et al. propose a framework for collaborative design that addresses environmental concerns in the design phase. They review the extent of the pollution and waste problem, the steps in the product realization process, and the life phases of a product.
The collaborative design system emphasizes access to environmental databases through an environmental data manager, which provides an intelligent interface between databases and applications.
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