This book is a valuable scientific and technical reference for engineers and scientists as well as for postgraduate students in the academic community. Moreover, the book will help to establish a link between principles and practical applications in the field of combustion. It can also be used as a bibliography to present the background of different combustion researchers. The book contains brief descriptions of fundamental and combustion processes, followed by an extensive survey of the combustion research technology. It also includes mathematical modeling of the processes covering mainly premixed and diffusion flames, where many chemical and physical processes compete in complex ways, for both laminar and turbulent flows.
This provides a unique bridge between combustion fundamentals and combustion technology, which should make the book a valuable technical reference for many engineers and scientists. Moreover, the book gives the reader sufficient background of basic engineering sciences such as chemistry, thermodynamics, heat transfer and fluid mechanics. The mentioned research and mathematical models fit between small-scale laboratory burner flames, and large-scale industrial boilers, furnaces and combustion chambers.
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The materials of this book have been collected from previous relevant research and some selected papers of the authors and co-workers, which have been presented mainly in different refereed journals, international conferences and symposiums. Furthermore, the book includes some of the many recent general correlations for the characteristics of laminar, turbulent, premixed and diffusion flames in an easily usable form. The authors believe that further progress in optimizing combustion performance and reducing polluting emissions can only be treated through understanding of combustion chemistry. Therefore, the book involves combustion chemistry models that validate experimental data for different fuels. These models are sufficiently accurate to allow confident predictions of the flame characteristics.
Chapter 1 presents an introduction to the fundamentals of combustion. The chapter starts with energy sources and fuel types with some related thermodynamic fundamentals, combustion stoichiometry, and thermochemical calculations. Descriptions of chemical reactions, and equilibrium composition and temperature are also presented. Chemical kinetics, including kinetic theory of gases, elementary reactions with transport phenomena, and modeling in combustion chemistry are discussed. Furthermore, the pollutant emissions generated from combustion systems, their formation and oxidation kinetics, as well as the reduction techniques, are also presented. In chapter 2, the basic definitions for premixed and diffusion laminar flames are given. Since the tasks of combustion flow diagnostics are to increase the fundamental understanding of aspects of combustion, the study of small-scale laminar flames in this chapter is essential. Therefore, many practical combustion problems can be examined most conveniently under the well defined and controlled conditions which the laminar flame provides.
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The objective of this chapter is to present some understanding of laminar flames as revealed by detailed numerical kinetic modeling, particularly in relation to the interaction between modeling and experiments. Furthermore, some general correlations are derived for the flame propagation parameters for both gaseous and liquid fuels. This chapter also describes the computational method of the kinetic model with the use of transport parameters and reaction mechanisms for different fuels (H2 to C16H3.,). These kinetic mechanisms are described, examined, and validated by the experimental results at different pressures, temperatures, equivalence ratios and volumetric ratios of 02/N2. Laminar burning velocity and volumetric heat release rate in relation to the turbulent flame model are important.
Therefore, general correlations for such parameters with the heat of reaction per mole of mixture for different gaseous and liquid fuels are introduced in chapter 2. Furthermore, several expressions for laminar burning velocities as functions of equivalence ratio, pressure, temperature, and gaseous additives have been derived for several practical hydrocarbon fuels. Also, in this chapter, the chemical reactions of nitrogen compounds that occur in combustion processes have been explained with their reduction technologies. In addition, the responses of flames to applied stresses are discussed in the context of flame extinction for premixed flames in both the symmetric back-to-back and the asymmetric unburnt-to-burnt configurations.
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