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Engineering Design Process Second Edition by Yousef Haik and Tamer M. Shahin
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Engineering Design Process Second Edition by Yousef Haik and Tamer M. Shahin

PREFACE to Engineering Design Process:

Design remains the focal point of engineering disciplines; it is what distinguishes engineering from other scientific disciplines. Engineers throughout history have wrestled with problems of water not being where it is needed, of minerals not being close at hand, of building materials having to be moved.

Ancient engineers were often called on to devise the means for erecting great monuments, for designing defenses against enemies, and for moving people and goods across rough terrain and even rougher water.

The word engineer originated in the eleventh century and is derived from the Latin origin “ingeniator” meaning one with “ingenium” or the clever one. Before the scientific revolution, ingenuity was demonstrated in many devices.

These devices were built by using a simple principle of what works and why it works in this way. Adaptation from nature was prominent in this era. For example, Leonardo da Vinci earned the title Ingenere General for his flying device and his bridge design to connect Istanbul to Europe, amongst his many other inventions.

Galileo’s use of systematic explanation and scientific approach to tackle problems is regarded by historians as the landmark of structured engineering design that is based on scientific merits and mathematical presentation.

Following the first Industrial Revolution, beginning in the eighteenth century, the French developed a university engineering education with emphasis on civil engineering, while the British pioneered mechanical engineering.

The Industrial Revolution brought a proliferation of new machines and manufacturing techniques and provided an impetus for the growth of science and commerce on an international scale.

During the second Industrial Revolution in the middle of nineteenth century, mass production and automation prevailed and were driven by many branches of engineering.

Our modern lifestyle is deeply influenced by our ability to employ scientific discoveries in a wide variety of devices.

The continued pursuit of design excellence is empowered by engineers’ ability to produce products that meets consumer needs. In the early 1900s, it was common in American industry for master mechanics to invent and, subsequently, for draftsmen to copy on paper what had been synthesized experimentally in the shop.

Since it was less costly and more efficient to erase rather than to remake parts in the shop, the value of synthesizing on paper was soon realized. Recent trends have been to apply theory where appropriate in the process of mechanical design.

But overall, it is emphasized that all of the useful ingredients—such as various aspects of art, science, engineering, practical experience, and ingenuity—must be properly blended in the design process. A successful design is achieved when a logical procedure is followed to meet a specific need.

This procedure, called the design process, is similar to the scientific method with respect to its step-by-step routine. Often, designs are not accomplished by an engineer simply completing the design steps in the given order.

The design process holds within its structure an iterative procedure. As the engineer proceeds through the steps, new information may be discovered and new objectives may be specified, at which time the steps may require revisiting.

The more time and effort an engineer spends on articulating the problem definition and understanding the needs statement, the less frequent the need for iteration.

This Engineering Design Process book is written as an introductory course in design. Students’ technical capabilities are assumed to be at the level of college physics and calculus. For students with advanced technical capabilities the analysis part in the design sequence could be emphasized.

This Engineering Design Process book consists of eleven chapters. Chapter 1 is an overview of the design steps and serves as an introduction to the Engineering Design Process book. Chapter 2 presents a few design tools that designers must master prior to the design process.

Some of these tools serve as an introduction to courses that students will encounter in future course work. Chapters 3 through 9 present the steps of the design process. The author is aware that the sequence of these steps can be changed according to instructor preference.

Instructors can alter the presentation sequence without having to change the presentation material. Chapter 10 discusses issues relating to the design cost. Chapter 11 presents a list of project descriptions that can serve as an entry point to instructors’ assignments.

In this second edition we have integrated design labs with the chapters. The purpose of these labs is to create design activities that help students, especially freshmen and sophomores, to adjust to working in teams.

The first few of these labs are geared toward team building. It is anticipated that instructors may want to include other activities in their design classes.

The authors wish to thank all colleagues and students who helped in producing this Engineering Design Process book, including Dr. Adnan Al-Bashir who provided Lab 5: Project Management. Students are encouraged to submit their comments and suggestions to the authors.

The authors also wish to thank the following reviewers for their helpful suggestions: Thomas R. Grimm, Michigan Technological University; Peter Jones, Auburn University; Peter Eliot Weiss, University of Toronto; and Steven C. York, Virginia Tech.

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