Manufacturing Automation Metal Cutting Mechanics Machine Tool Vibrations and CNC Design Second Edition by Yusuf Altintas
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Manufacturing Automation Metal Cutting Mechanics Machine Tool Vibrations and CNC Design Second Edition by Yusuf Altintas


Metal cutting is one of the most widely used manufacturing processes to produce the final shape of products, and its technology continues to advance in parallel with developments in materials, computers, sensors, and actuators. A blank is converted into a final product by cutting extra material away by turning, drilling, milling, broaching, boring, and grinding operations conducted on computer numerically controlled (CNC) machine tools. The second edition of this book helps students and engineers understand the scientific principles of metal cutting technology and the practical application of engineering principles to solving problems encountered in manufacturing shops.

The book reflects the author’s industrial and research experience, and his manufacturing engineering philosophy as well. Engineers can learn best by being shown how to apply the fundamentals of physics to actual machines and processes that they can feel and visualize. Mathematics, physics, computers, algorithms, and instrumentation then become useful integration tools in analyzing or designing machine tools and machining processes. Metal cutting operations take place between a cutting tool and workpiece material mounted on a machine tool.

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The motion of the machine tool is controlled by its CNC unit, and the numerically controlled (NC) commands to CNC are generated on computer-aided design/computer-aided manufacturing (CAD/CAM) systems. The productivity and accuracy of the metal removal operation depend on the preparation of NC programs, planning of machining process parameters and cutting conditions, cutter geometry, work and tool materials, machine tool rigidity, and performance of the CNC unit. Manufacturing engineers who are involved in machining and machine tool technology must be familiar with each of these topics. It is equally important to link them and to be able to apply them in an interdisciplinary fashion to solve machining problems.

The beginning chapters of this book provide detailed mathematical models of metal cutting, milling, turning, and drilling operations. The macromechanics of cutting, which is applicable to solving problems on the shop floor and in machine tool design, is emphasized. Although required in work and tool material design – the micromechanics of cutting – basic principles of machinability, tool wear mechanisms, and chipping are briefly introduced to provide a complete picture. The design of machine tools requires knowledge of structures, mechanics of solids, vibrations, and kinematics, subjects that are covered in dedicated mechanical engineering texts. This text builds on that knowledge, applying the principles of vibration and experimental modal analysis to machine tools and metal cutting.

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Mathematical methods are simplified so that they can be easily used to solve machining vibration problems. Chatter vibrations in machining are treated in depth in this text because the problem is experienced daily by practicing manufacturing engineers. The last three chapters of the book are dedicated to programming, design, and automation of CNC machine tools. Numerically controlled programming and CAD/CAM technology are briefly covered, but with sufficient explanation so that the reader can start programming and using CNC machine tools. The selection of drive actuators, feedback sensors, modeling and analysis of feed drives, the design of real-time trajectory generation and interpolation algorithms, and CNC-oriented error analysis are presented in more detail than can be found in other texts.

Open CNC design philosophy and improvement of accuracy and productivity by adding sensors and algorithms to CNC machine tools are also covered. The book is intended as a text for senior undergraduate and graduate students and practicing manufacturing engineers who wish to learn the engineering principles of metal cutting, machine tool vibration, experimental modal analysis, NC programming and CAD/CAM technology, CNC system design, and sensor-based machining. The book can also be used by researchers who wish to study metal cutting mechanics, machine tool vibrations, feed drive design and control, and CNC and sensor-based machining.

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