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Machining processes produce finished products with a high degree of accuracy and surface quality. Conventional machining utilizes cutting tools that must be harder than the workpiece material. The use of difficult-to-cut materials encouraged efforts that led to the introduction of the nonconventional machining processes that are well-established in modern manufacturing industries. Single-action nontraditional machining processes are classified on the basis of the machining action causing the material removal from the workpiece.
For each process, the material removal mechanism, machining system components, process variables, technological characteristics, and industrial applications are presented. The need for higher machining productivity, product accuracy, and surface quality led to the combination of two or more machining actions to form a new hybrid machining process. Based on the major mechanism causing the material removal process, two categories of hybrid machining processes are introduced.
Areview of the existing hybrid machining processes is given together with current trends and research directions. For each hybrid machining process the method of material removal, machining system, process variables, and applications are discussed. This book provides a comprehensive reference for nontraditional machining processes as well as for the new hybrid machining ones. It is intended to be used for degree and postgraduate courses in production, mechanical, manufacturing, and industrial engineering. It is also useful to engineers working in the field of advanced machining technologies.
In preparing the text, I paid adequate attention to presenting the subject in a simple and easy to understand way. Diagrams are simple and self-explanatory. I express my gratitude to all authors of various books, papers, Internet sites, and other literature which have been referred to in this book. I will be glad to receive comments and suggestions for enhancing the value of this book in future editions.
In Chap. 1, the history and progress of machining is introduced. The difference between traditional and nontraditional machining is explained. Examples for conventional machining by cutting and abrasion are given. Single-action nontraditional machining is classified according to the source of energy causing the material removal process. Hybrid machining occurs as a result of combining two or more machining phases. Hybrid machining is categorized according to the main material removal mechanism occurring during machining.
Chapter 2 covers a wide range of mechanical nontraditional machining processes such as ultrasonic machining (USM), water jet machining (WJM), abrasive water jet machining (AWJM), ice jet machining (IJM), as well as magnetic abrasive finishing (MAF). In these processes the mechanical energy is used to force the abrasives, water jets, and ice jets that cause mechanical abrasion (MA) to the workpiece material.
In Chap. 3, the chemical machining processes such as chemical milling (CHM), photochemical machining (PCM), and electrolytic polishing (EP) are discussed. In these processes the material is mainly removed through chemical dissolution (CD) occurring at certain locations of the workpiece surface.
Chapter 4 deals with electrochemical machining (ECM) and related applications that include electrochemical drilling (ECDR), shaped tube electrolytic machining (STEM), electrostream (ES), electrochemical jet drilling (ECJD), and electrochemical deburring (ECB). The electrochemical dissolution (ECD) controls the rate of material removal. Machining processes that are based on the thermal machining action are described in
Chap. 5. These include electrodischarge machining (EDM), laser beam machining (LBM), electron beam machining (EBM), plasma beam machining (BPM), and ion beam machining (IBM). In most of these processes, material is removed from the workpiece by melting and evaporation. Thermal properties of the machined parts affect the rate of material removal.
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