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This book (Process Heat Transfer Principles, Applications and Rules Of Thumb) is based on a course in process heat transfer that I have taught for many years. The course has been taken by seniors and first-year graduate students who have completed an introductory course in engineering heat transfer.
Although this background is assumed, nearly all students need some review before proceeding to more advanced material.
For this reason, and also to make the book self-contained, the first three chapters provide a review of essential material normally covered in an introductory heat transfer course.
Furthermore, the book is intended for use by practicing engineers as well as university students, and it has been written with the aim of facilitating self-study.
Unlike some books in this field, no attempt is made herein to cover the entire panoply of heat transfer equipment.
Instead, the book focuses on the types of equipment most widely used in the chemical process industries, namely, shell-and-tube heat exchangers (including condensers and reboilers), air-cooled heat exchangers and double-pipe (hairpin) heat exchangers.
Within the confines of a single volume, this approach allows an in-depth treatment of the material that is most relevant from an industrial perspective, and provides students with the detailed knowledge needed for engineering practice.
This approach is also consistent with the time available in a one-semester course. Design of double-pipe exchangers is presented in Chapter 4.
Chapters 5 to 7 comprise a unit dealing with shell-and-tube exchangers in operations involving single-phase fluids. Design of shell-and-tube exchangers is covered in Chapter 5 using the Simplified Delaware method for shell-side calculations.
For pedagogical reasons, more sophisticated methods for performing shell-side heat-transfer and pressure-drop calculations are presented separately in Chapter 6 (full Delaware method) and Chapter 7 (Stream Analysis method).
Heat exchanger networks are covered in Chapter 8. I normally present this topic at this point in the course to provide a change of pace. However,
Chapter 8 is essentially self-contained and can, therefore, be covered at any time. Phase-change operations are covered in Chapters 9 to 11.
Chapter 9 presents the basics of boiling heat transfer and two-phase flow. The latter is encountered in both Chapter 10, which deals with the design of reboilers, and Chapter 11, which covers condensation and condenser design. Design of air-cooled heat exchangers is presented in Chapter 12.
The material in this chapter is essentially self-contained and, hence, it can be covered at any time.
Since the primary goal of both the book and the course is to provide students with the knowledge and skills needed for modern industrial practice, computer applications play an integral role, and the book is intended for use with one or more commercial software packages.
HEXTRAN (SimSci-Esscor), HTRI Xchanger Suite (Heat Transfer Research, Inc.) and the HTFS Suite (Aspen Technology, Inc.) are used in the book, along with HX-Net (Aspen Technology, Inc.)
for pinch calculations. HEXTRAN affords the most complete coverage of topics, as it handles all types of heat exchangers and also performs pinch calculations for design of heat exchanger networks.
It does not perform mechanical design calculations for shell-and-tube exchangers, however, nor does it generate detailed tube layouts or setting plans.
Furthermore, the methodology used by HEXTRAN is based on publicly available technology and is generally less refined than that of the other software packages.
The HTRI and HTFS packages use proprietary methods developed by their respective research organizations, and are similar in their level of refinement.
HTFS Suite handles all types of heat exchangers; it also performs mechanical design calculations and develops detailed tube layouts and setting plans for shell-and-tube exchangers.
HTRI Xchanger Suite lacks a mechanical design feature, and the module for hairpin exchangers is not included with an academic license.
Neither HTRI nor HTFS has the capability to perform pinch calculations. As of this writing, Aspen Technology is not providing the TASC and ACOL modules of the HTFS Suite under its university program.
Instead, it is offering the HTFS-plus design package. This package basically consists of the TASC and ACOL computational engines combined with slightly modified GUI’s from the corresponding BJAC programs (HETRAN and AEROTRAN), and packaged with the BJAC TEAMS mechanical design program.
This package differs greatly in appearance and to some extent in available features from HTFS Suite.
However, most of the results presented in the text using TASC and ACOL can be generated using the HTFS-plus package. Software companies are continually modifying their products, making differences between the text and current versions of the software packages unavoidable.
However, many modifications involve only superficial changes in format that have little, if any, effect on results.
More substantive changes occur less frequently, and even then the effects tend to be relatively minor. Nevertheless, readers should expect some divergence of the software from the versions used herein, and they should not be unduly concerned if their results differ somewhat from those presented in the text.
Indeed, even the same version of a code, when run on different machines, can produce slightly different results due to differences in round-off errors.
With these caveats, it is hoped that the detailed computer examples will prove helpful in learning to use the software packages, as well as in understanding their idiosyncrasies and limitations.
I have made a concerted effort to introduce the complexities of the subject matter gradually throughout the book in order to avoid overwhelming the reader with a massive amount of detail at any one time.
As a result, information on shell-and-tube exchangers is spread over a number of chapters, and some of the finer details are introduced in the context of example problems, including computer examples.
Although there is an obvious downside to this strategy, I nevertheless believe that it represents good pedagogy.
Both English units, which are still widely used by American industry, and SI units are used in this Process Heat Transfer Principles, Applications and Rules Of Thumb book. Students in the United States need to be proficient in both sets of units, and the same is true of students in countries that do a large amount of business with U.S. firms.
In order to minimize the need for unit conversion, however, working equations are either given in dimensionless form or, when this is not practical, they are given in both sets of units.
I would like to take this opportunity to thank the many students who have contributed to this effort over the years, both directly and indirectly through their participation in my course.
I would also like to express my deep appreciation to my colleagues in the Department of Chemical and Natural Gas Engineering at TAMUK, Dr. Ali Pilehvari and Mrs. Wanda Pounds.
Without their help, encouragement, and friendship, this Process Heat Transfer Principles, Applications and Rules Of Thumb book would not have been written.
This edition provides an improved discussion of practical industry considerations in the design and operation of process heat exchangers.
Many of the revisions are based on recent advances of HTRI research, plus the ongoing feedback of process engineers and heat-exchanger designers via the HTRI Technical Support Group.
A number of new examples have also been included that illustrate additional aspects of heat-exchanger design. The following is a summary of the most important additions:
- A section on radiation has been added in Chapter 2 to provide more complete coverage of heat transfer
fundamentals. Material on mixed convection and non-ideal heat transfer from fins has also been added in
- A section on plate heat exchangers has been added in Chapter 3 to provide more complete coverage of the most widely used types of industrial heat exchangers. New material on baffles and shell selection criteria for shell-and-tube exchangers has also been added.
- Two examples involving the design of a multi-tube hairpin exchanger have been added in Chapter 4.
- An example illustrating the significance of temperature profiles in the design of shell-and-tube heat exchangers has been added in Chapter 5.
- A section covering shell-side design guidelines based on stream analysis has been added in Chapter 7, and Example 7.4 has been re-worked on this basis. Two new computer examples have also been added.
- In Chapter 8, a case study has been added that illustrates the application of Pinch Analysis to a real-world process, the production of gasoline from bio-ethanol.
- A new example has been added in Chapter 10 that illustrates some of the unintended consequences that can arise from the use of fouling factors in reboiler design.
- In Chapter 11, a section on condenser venting, draining, and subcooling has been added. A new example comparing different baffle configurations and different types of tubing for condensing applications has also been added, and Example 11.10 has been completely re-worked.
- An example involving the design of an air-cooled condenser has been added in Chapter 12.
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