The term “ smart grid ” defi nes a self - healing network equipped with dynamic optimization techniques that use real - time measurements to minimize network losses, maintain voltage levels, increase reliability, and improve asset management. The operational data collected by the smart grid and its sub - systems will allow system operators to rapidly identify the best strategy to secure against attacks, vulnerability, and so on, caused by various contingencies. However, the smart grid fi rst depends upon identifying and researching key performance measures, designing and testing appropriate tools, and developing the proper education curriculum to equip current and future personnel with the knowledge and skills for deployment of this highly advanced system.
The objective of this book is to equip readers with a working knowledge of fundamentals, design tools, and current research, and the critical issues in the development and deployment of the smart grid. The material presented in its eleven chapters is an outgrowth of numerous lectures, conferences, research efforts, and academic and industry debate on how to modernize the grid both in the United States and worldwide. For example, Chapter 3 discusses the optimization tools suited to managing the randomness, adaptive nature, and predictive concerns of an electric grid.
The general purpose Optimal Power Flow, which takes advantage of a learning algorithm and is capable of solving the optimization scheme needed for the generation, transmission, distribution, demand response, reconfi guration, and the automation functions based on real - time measurements, is explained in detail. I am grateful to several people for their help during the course of writing this book. I acknowledge Keisha D ’ Arnaud, a dedicated recent graduate student at the Center for Energy Systems and Control, for her perseverance and support in the several iterations needed to design the text for a general audience.
I thank David Owens, Senior Executive Vice President of the Edison Electric Institute, and Dr. Paul Werbos, Program Director of the Electrical, Communication and Cyber Systems (ECCS), National Science Foundation (NSF), for encouraging and supporting my interest in unifying my knowledge of systems through computational intelligence to address complex power system problems where traditional techniques have failed.
Their support was especially valuable during my stint at NSF as a Program Director in ECCS from 2001 to 2004. I am also grateful for the Small Grant Expository Research award granted by the NSF to develop the fi rst generation of Dynamic Stochastic Optimal Power fl ow, a general purpose tool for use in smart grid design and development. I thank my family for their encouragement and support. I am grateful to my students and colleagues at the Center for Energy Systems and Control, who, as audience and enthusiasts, let me test and refi ne my ideas in the smart grid, and also for honorary invited presentations to top utility executive management in addressing the emergence of the smart grid across the country.
All these exposures rekindled my interest in the design and development of the grid for the future. Based on these desired features, an assessment of the differences in the characteristics of the present power grid and the proposed smart grid is needed to highlight characteristics of the grid and the challenges. When fully developed the smart grid system will allow customer involvement, enhance generation and transmission with tools to allow minimization of system vulnerability, resiliency, reliability, adequacy and power quality.
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