- Properties of Fluids.
- Pressure and its Measurement.
- Hydrostatic Forces on Surfaces.
- Buoyancy and Flotation.
- Fluid Kinematics.
- Fluid Dynamics.
- Dimensional and Model Analysis.
- Boundary Layer Theory.
- Laminar Flow.
- Turbulent Flow.
- Flow through Pipes.
- Flow through Orifices and Mouthpieces.
- Flow over notches and weirs.
- Flow around Submerged Bodies-Drag and Lift.
- Compressible Flow.
- Flow in Open Channels.
- Force Exerted on Surfaces.
- Hydraulic Turbine.
- Centrifugal Pump.
- Reciprocating Pumps.
- Miscellaneous Hydraulic Machines.
Properties of Fluids (Highlights)
Definition of fluid
A fluid is a substance which deforms continuously when subjected to external shearing forces. Characteristics of fluid
1. It has no definite shape of its own, but conforms to the shape of the containing vessel.
2. Even a small amount of shear force exerted on a fluid will cause it to undergo a deformation which
continues as long as the force continues to be applied.
3. It is interesting to note that a solid suffers strain when subjected to shear forces whereas a fluid suffers Rate of Strain i.e. it flows under similar circumstances.
MISCELLANEOUS HYDRAULIC MACHINES (Highlights)
1. The hydraulic accumulator is a device used to store the energy of fluid under pressure and make this energy available to hydraulic machines such as presses, lifts and cranes. Its action is similar to that of an electrical storage battery. Capacity of hydraulic accumulator = p x A x L [Where p = liquid pressure supplied by pump, A = area of the sliding ram, and L = stroke or lift of the ram.]
2. A differential accumulator is a special type of accumulator that is used for storing energy at high pressure by comparatively small load on the ram.
3. Hydraulic intensifier is a device which increases the intensity of pressure of a given liquid with the help of low pressure liquid of large quantity
4. Hydraulic press is a device used for lifting heavy loads by the application of much smaller force. It is based on Pascal's law.
5. Hydraulic crane is a device which is used for lifting heavy loads (upto 25 MN).
6. Hydraulic lift is a device used for carrying persons and loads from one floor to another.
7. Hydraulic ram is a device with which small quantities of water can be pumped to higher levels from the available large quantity of water of low head, The efficiency of hydraulic ram.
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