This book is for undergraduates and HNC/HND students in both civil and mechanical engineering. The accent throughou t has been placed upon the engineering aspects of the subject but it is hoped that the more mathematically minded reader will find sufficient to interest him. Assumptions upon which analyses are based have been carefully specified. Any analysis is only as accurate as its underlying assumptions and so the reader should develop the habit of assessing the value of a piece of theory by considering the applicability of its assumptions in the context of the problem under examination.
Both engineers and mathematicians have contributed to the study of fluid mechanics and of recent years there has been a marked tendency to use mathematical methods in place of the empiricism that was used in the past. I believe that this trend will continue and academic courses will become progressively more mathematical in their approach. The systems of units that have been used are the British system, which is still used in many sections of industry and in many parts of the world, and the SI system. Even though the SI system has been introduced in the UK and Europe, it is necessary for British engineers designing projects in those areas to know both systems. At the end of each chapter questions have been included which it is hoped will be of assistance in understanding the chapter.
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They are set in both systems of units, the SI values being enclosed in square brackets. Some questions come from examination papers of the University of London, the University of Leeds and the Part II hydraulics examinations of the Institution of Civil Engineers, and I gratefully acknowledge permission to use them; others have been evolved for this book. The answers supplied are of course my own. The subject is very large and it is not possible to cover every topic in detail. The student will need to read further and a list of suggested reading is included.
I would like to thank Mr 1. Higgins, of the Faculty of Applied Science, the University of Leeds, who prepared the drawings. This second edition has been extended. Chapter 8 now contains material which it is unusual to find in a general textbook of this type. The treatment of waterhammer in this chapter now covers the simpler methods of analysing slowly changing hydraulic controls and indicates how pipe friction can be included in the analysis. The graphical treatment of joints in pipelines is also included. An additional chapter on compressible flow has been added for students wishing to study mechanical engineering. This covers most of the material usually presented in mechanical engineering courses.