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Electric Power Transmission and Distribution by S. Sivanagaraju and S. Satyanarayana | PDF Free Download.
Electric Power Transmission and Distribution has been designed for undergraduate courses in electrical and electronics engineering in Indian universities.
Tailored to provide elementary knowledge of power systems, a foundation in electric circuits and engineering is a prerequisite for starting this course. The organization of the topics and the pace at which they unfold have been planned to enable students to proceed from the basic concepts to the difficult ones with ease.
The text can ideally be taught in the sixth or seventh semester, and can also be used as a reference book by BE, BTech and AMIE students. The contents of this book have been developed with an emphasis on clarity, with equal stress on the basic concepts as well as advanced ideas, in detail over sixteen chapters.
Chapter 1 introduces the conventional sources of electrical energy and explains about the load forecasting and its various aspects, the various levels of power transmission, and the need as well as the motivation for restructuring the power industry.
Chapter 2 explains the four transmission line parameters, namely, resistance and inductance in a series combination and a shunt combination of capacitance and conductance. Materials used for the manufacture of conductors and the various types of conductors are explained in detail.
It is explained in detail about the current distortion effect and the effect of the earth on transmission line capacitance to give a lucid understanding of the constituent elements of the transmission system.
Chapters 3 and 4 are devoted to the construction and performance analysis of overhead transmission lines.
Classification of transmission lines, network constraints, long line equations, regulation concepts, surge impedance, Ferranti effect, and line loadability are dealt comprehensively.
Power circle diagrams used to calculate the maximum power-transfer capacity, and synchronous phase-modifier capacity are also discussed.
Chapter 5 describes the power system transients due to surges. The traveling wave equation used to describe the phenomena of the incident and reflected waves, the evaluation of surge impedance, its importance and the analysis of the traveling wave under different conditions, such as with open-circuited and shortcircuited end lines, are highlighted in this chapter.
Chapter 6 is devoted to the corona phenomenon. The formation and effects of the corona, factors affecting corona loss, and corona interference with communication lines are examined.
Chapter 7 describes the mechanical design of overhead lines. Different line supports, sag calculations with reference to both equal and unequal supports, effect of ice and wind-loading on sag calculations, string charts, vibrations and dampers, and sag templates are all covered in this chapter.
This chapter gives an idea of the different types of line supports and their design for overhead lines.
Chapter 8 is devoted to the description of overhead insulators. Insulating materials, types of insulators, stringing efficiency and methods for its improvement, arcing horns, and the various methods for testing insulators are discussed. This chapter also gives a selection of the ideal type of insulator for various given voltages.
Chapter 9 gives the general construction of underground cables, elaborates upon their various types, and explains their properties, advantages, and disadvantages. The power factor, heating, testing and laying of cables are also discussed.
Chapter 10 is concerned with power factor improvement. The causes and demerits of lower power factors are followed by a discussion of the methods for their improvement. The most economical power factor is also expounded suitably.
Chapter 11 discusses the necessity of voltage control, the various sources of reactive power generation and absorption of reactive power, the methods of voltage control and the rating of synchronous phase modifier.
These concepts help to choose the rating of the capacitors for power factor improvement as well as for voltage control. Chapter 12 discusses the economics of power-system designing.
The choice of system frequency, system voltage and the advantage of high voltage transmission are elucidated here.
The calculation of the economical size of conductors using Kelvin’s law and the limitations of the applications of Kelvin’s law are illustrated to give the student a holistic understanding of the methods of calculating the ideal size of conductors for different load levels.
Chapter 13 discusses the different types of substations, the substation equipment and types of bus-bar arrangements.
Various types of neutral grounding systems are also discussed in this chapter. Based on the requirement and available budget, the selection of bus-bar arrangements and suitable earthing methods, are described.
Chapter 14 gives a description of the different types of distribution systems, distribution-system losses, and their classification.
We also look at voltage drop calculations of various types of DC and AC distributors in this chapter, to gain an insight into the designing of a suitable type of distributor for a given system.
Chapter 15 is designed to give an idea of the EHV and HVDC transmission systems including the need, advantages and disadvantages of EHV and HVDC transmission systems. The different types of HVDC systems, three-phase bridge converters, components of HVDC transmission systems, and harmonic filters form a part of this chapter.
Chapter 16, the concluding chapter of the book, introduces the Flexible AC transmission systems technology and provides basic definitions of the various types of FACTS controllers, control of power systems and an overview of FACTS controller circuits.
It also includes a brief discussion on voltage stability.
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