Everything we consume or use requires energy to produce and package, to distribute to shops or front doors, to operate, and then to be got rid ofi . The global demand for energy is expected to increase but conventional energy sources are limited and have carbon emissions to the environment. The utilization of renewable energy sources such as wind energy, or solar energy, among others, is currently of greater interest. Nevertheless, since their availability is arbitrary and unstable this can lead to frequency variation, to grid instability and to a total or partial loss of load power supply.
On the other hand, the presence of a static converter as output interface of the generating plants introduces voltage and current harmonics into the electrical system that negatively affect system power quality, which is dealt with in another book. By integrating distributed power generation systems closed to the loads in the electric grid, we can eliminate the need to transfer energy over long distances through the electric grid. Moreover, they are an alternative source of energy to meet rapidly increasing energy consumption, but they are not appropriate to be directly connected to the main utility grid.
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At the same time, they have led to electrical problems. The non-linear components that are used in electronic equipment and other charges can considerably affect the efficiency of an electrical system. An analysis and understanding of the electrical problems and the damage that can be generated to the systems and infrastructures are at the focus of attention due to the progress and introduction of digital systems. Ensuring optimal power quality after a good design and good devices, means productivity, efficiency, competitiveness and profitability.
In the following chapters the reader will be introduced to different power generation and distribution systems with an analysis of some types of existing disturbances and a study of different industrial applications such as battery charges; additionally, different software tools developed for power quality understanding, evaluation or monitoring are analyzed. The book is divided into four sections: power generation and distribution systems, disturbances and voltage sag, software tools, and industrial applications; a brief discussion of each chapter is as follows. Chapter 1 evaluates the possible drawbacks to power-supply stability and quality regarding the increasing number of renewable energy sources, both in grid-connected and stand-alone configurations, in order to prevent possible problems by using a proper design and management of these generation units.
A first solution to a renewable source equipped with an energy storage system in stand-alone is presented; secondly, a grid connected application of diffused hybrid generation units comprising a wind turbine, a photovoltaic generator and a battery bank is analysed. From the study of both solutions some guidelines for the design of renewable generation units are obtained, focusing on the aspect that influences the power quality of the electrical system. .
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Chapter 2 studies a combined flexible wind source-based model, considered as not having the capability to control voltages, and shunt Flexible AC Transmission Systems (FACTS) devices This model is proposed to dynamically adjust the active power delivered from the wind source and the reactive power exchanged between the shunt FACTS and the network to enhance power quality. To do this, dynamic shunt compensators (STATCOM) modelled as a Solar Photovoltaic (PV) node are used to control the voltage by a flexible adjustment of the reactive power exchanged with the network. Chapter 3 presents the modelling and simulation of PV-based inverter systems. PV based-operating conditions are concerned with the real situation, such as the input effects of radiation and temperature on voltage and PV current and load and grid variation.
In order to build models for nonlinear devices without prior information, system identification methods are set out, using only measured input and output waveforms to determine the model parameters by a Hammerstein-Wiener nonlinear model system identification process. After obtaining appropriate models, an analysis and prediction of power quality is carried out, taking account of steady state and transient condition from different scenarios.
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