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Seismic Design Aids for Nonlinear Analysis of Reinforced Concrete Structures by Srinivasan Chandrasekaran, Luciano Nunziante, Giorgio Serino, and Federico Carannante | PDF Free Download.
Franklin Y. Cheng, PE, an honorary member of ASCE, joined the University of Missouri-Rolla as an assistant professor in 1966.
In 1987, the Board of Curators of the University appointed him curators’ professor; he was honored as curators’ professor emeritus in 2000. He is a former senior investigator, Intelligent Systems Center, University of Missouri-Rolla.
Dr. Cheng received 4 honorary professorships abroad and chaired 7 of his 24 National Science Foundation (NSF) delegations to various countries for research and development cooperation.
He has also been the director of international earthquake engineering symposia and numerous state-of-the-art short courses. His work has warranted grants from several funding agencies including more than 30 from NSF.
He has served as either chairman or member of 37 professional societies and committees, 12 of which are ASCE groups. He was the first chair of the Technical Administrative Committee on Analysis and Computation and initiated the Emerging Computing Technology Committee and Structural Control Committee.
He also initiated and chaired the Stability Under Seismic Loading Task Group of the Structural Research Council (SSRC).
Dr. Cheng has served as a consultant for Martin Marietta Energy Systems, Inc., Los Alamos National Laboratory, and Martin & Huang International, among others. The author, coauthor, or editor of 26 books and over 250 publications,
Dr. Cheng’s authorship includes two textbooks, Matrix Analysis of Structural Dynamics: Applications and Earthquake Engineering, and Dynamic Structural Analysis.
Dr. Cheng is the recipient of numerous honors, including the MSM-UMR Alumni Merit, ASCE State-of-the-Art twice, the Faculty Excellence, and the Halliburton Excellence awards.
After receiving a BS degree (1960) from the National ChengKung University, Taiwan, and an MS degree (1962) from the University of Illinois at Urbana-Champaign, he gained industrial experience with C.F. Murphy and Sargent & Lundy in Chicago, Illinois.
Dr. Cheng received a Ph.D. degree (1966) in civil engineering from the University of Wisconsin-Madison.
Srinivasan Chandrasekaran is currently a reader in structural engineering, Department of Civil Engineering, Institute of Technology, Banaras Hindu University, India, and also a visiting professor (MiUR Fellow) at the Department of Structural Engineering, University of Naples Federico II, Naples, Italy, under the invitation of the Ministry of Italian University Education and Research (MiUR) from 2007 to 2009.
He has 17 years of experience in teaching and research, during which he has taught several basic and advanced courses in civil and structural engineering to undergraduate and postgraduate students in India and Italy.
He conducted specialized research in Italy on advanced nonlinear modeling and analysis of building under seismic loads with their experimental validation.
He is also a participating member of ReLuis Line 7, an executive project under the European Commission, which involves many research laboratories and universities in Europe. He conducts teaching and research in seismic engineering.
He also has conducted research on nonlinear dynamic analysis of offshore compliant structures in collaboration with researchers and faculty members in Italy, India, and the United States. He has published 60 research papers in refereed journals and conferences and has successfully completed many consultancy projects in India.
He also has industrial experience in design, consultancy, and execution of major civil engineering projects in India including cement plants, paper industries, and other commercial and educational institutions
Luciano Nunziante is a full professor of structural mechanics and plasticity in the Department of Structural Engineering, University of Naples Federico II, Italy, where he has taught for the last 30 years.
He has authored many books on plasticity, structural mechanics, and construction science that are referred to as standard textbooks for undergraduate and postgraduate programs in civil and structural engineering in Europe and abroad.
He has successfully executed many projects in cooperation with industrial partners in Italy and the European Union.
He has published about 250 research papers in refereed journals and conferences. He has also organized and chaired many international conferences on advanced topics in structural mechanics.
Giorgio Serino is a full professor of structural engineering in the Department of Structural Engineering, University of Naples Federico II, Italy, where he has taught for the last 20 years.
He has a rich experience that includes teaching and research in seismic analysis and design of structures, with a special interest in response control of structures using passive and semiactive dampers.
He is also currently the coordinator of ReLuis Line 7, an executive project under the European Commission, which involves a research team of 18 subgroups consisting of several industrial partners and universities involved in research in seismic engineering.
He has authored about 100 research papers in refereed journals and conferences and successfully completed several international and national research projects and consultancy assignments.
Federico Carannante is a contract lecturer in the Department of Structural Engineering, University of Naples Federico II, Italy, and is working on the nonlinear modeling of biomechanical materials commonly used in aerospace applications.
He has authored about 20 research papers in refereed journals and conferences. His special interest rests in the analysis of functionally graded anisotropic materials, both elastic and nonelastic.
Seismic Design Aids for Nonlinear Analysis of Reinforced Concrete Structures (with examples and computer coding) is an attempt toward clarifying and simplifying the complexities involved in estimating some basic input parameters required for such analyses.
The necessity of safe seismic design of structures is becoming a big concern for the engineering community due to the increase in damage to buildings during recent earthquakes.
Most existing buildings do not comply with the current seismic codes; therefore, it is necessary to assess their structural safety and to have clear answers to questions that raise doubts about their structural safety.
For most of these buildings, it is necessary to prevent structural failure, although the occurrence of limited damages is usually accepted.
As a matter of fact, nonlinear structural analysis has been a fundamental tool for the past 30 years, but not one widely addressed in university courses and hence not currently employed by structural engineers comfortably.
On the other hand, the spreading of efficient and complete computer codes of structural analysis drives them toward a passive attitude that usually opposes the full verification of the design process.
While nonlinear analysis methods like static pushover are commonly accepted and recommended as a reliable tool by international codes for seismic assessment of buildings, the accuracy of the estimate of seismic capacity strongly depends on the input parameters of such analysis.
Some of the basic inputs, namely, (1) axial force–bending moment yield interaction, (2) moment-curvature, and (3) moment-rotation characteristics accounting for appropriate nonlinearity of constitutive materials of reinforced concrete elements, need to be readdressed for an accurate pushover analysis.
The design curves and tables proposed in the book are the outcomes of the studies conducted by the authors using a variety of nonlinear tools, computer programs, and software.
During the course of teaching, researching, and short-term courses conducted on the subject, it is felt that the appropriate use of nonlinear properties of constitutive materials is not common among design engineers using software tools.
They tend to use default properties of materials as an input to nonlinear analyses without realizing that a minor variation in the nonlinear characteristics of the constitutive materials like concrete and steel could result in an unsatisfactory solution leading to wrong assessment and interpretation.
The main reason for such ignorance can be due to complexities involved in deriving the material properties of reinforced concrete that constitute the basic input of the nonlinear analyses.
Seismic Design Aids spans five chapters on the topics (1) axial force–bending moment yield interaction (P-M), (2) bending moment-curvature relationship (M-f),
(3) bending moment-rotation characteristics (M-ϑ) for beams with different support conditions, and loading cases,
(4) collapse multiplier of seismic loads for regular framed structures using plastic theorems, both upper bound and lower bound limit analysis theorems, and (5) verification of plastic flow rule for the developed P-M interaction domains.
Detailed mathematical modeling of P-M interaction of RC rectangular beams based on international codes, namely, Italian code, Indian code, and Eurocode, currently in prevalence by defining the boundaries of the subdomains and set of analytical expressions is proposed in the first chapter.
Moment-curvature relationships for beams (with no axial force) and for columns (with different levels of axial forces) are presented in Chapter 2.
In Chapter 3, some practical cases of beams with relevant support conditions and loading conditions are selected for which the collapse mechanism and plastic hinge extension are presented with complete analytical expressions for moment-rotation and ductility ratios.
Chapter 4 deals with the determination of collapse load multipliers using plastic theorems for a few selected examples that are common causes of frames with a weak-beam, strong-column type.
The developed analytical modeling of P-M interaction is verified for the plastic flow rule in Chapter 5.
Though the material characteristics used in Seismic Design Aids are limited to a few international codes, readers can easily derive the required expressions in accordance with any other international code of their choice.
This is made possible by presenting the step-by-step derivation of the expressions in the relevant chapters; simply by replacing a few equations addressing the material characteristics, one can readily arrive at the desired expressions.
However, using the same algorithm, the authors are certain that design engineers and researchers can easily derive other cases not addressed in this book.
We also present a step-by-step procedure to carry out a pushover analysis of an example frame using the proposed design curves and tables as input parameters.
Two very simple relationships are proposed for upper and lower bounds of the seismic load multiplier for regular frames of the weak-beam, strong-column type.
The forecasts, shown by means of their graphical representations, qualify an optimal agreement with the relevant values obtained by pushover analysis for all the regular framed structures analyzed.
Knowledge of the foreseen static multipliers, also based on an easy analytical approach, is useful both for seismic assessment and design since the structure will be safe, by definition, under the seismic loads amplified with static lower bounds.
The computer codes used for nonlinear optimization of collapse multiplier using static theorem and for determining kinematic multipliers are given in the additional material found on the Web site; using the program, one can easily modify the input to determine the multipliers for other cases that are not addressed in Seismic Design Aids.
The kinematic and static multipliers for collapse loads of frames are then compared with the results obtained using the nonlinear static pushover method to show the level of confidence in the results obtained using limit analysis.
Each chapter commences with a relevant brief literature review followed by a description of the detailed mathematical modeling.
Using material characteristics of concrete and steel as proposed by the codes, analytical expressions are derived, based on the classical theory of nonlinear mechanics.
The developed equations are followed by the treatment of structural components of building frames as example problems.
Tables and design curves are proposed for appropriate combinations of cross-section dimensions of beams and columns with relevant sets of the percentage of tensile and compression reinforcements commonly used in design offices.
Seismic Design Aids can be useful for capacity assessment of reinforced concrete (RC) elements whose cross-sections are known and also for performing nonlinear analysis of RC structures using readily available computer programs.
Design curves are given only for a few combinations of cross-section dimensions and steel reinforcement to limit the color illustrations, thereby keeping the cost affordable.
Using the complementary information at http://www.crcpress.com/e_products/downloads/download .asp?cat_no=K10453 provided, one can compute the required parameters for any desired section not illustrated in the figures or tables of this book.
Tables are developed in a spreadsheet form (Excel file), and steps to use these files are also described at the end of each chapter.
Design engineers can readily use these tables and curves as input for their design assignments. The proposed analytical expressions of the input parameters addressed in Seismic Design Aids are results of extensive research work carried out by the authors.
The numerical procedures are proposed in the tables after thorough verification of the results in close agreement with those obtained from analytical expressions.
Complete computer coding, used for obtaining the collapse multipliers, is given at the end. With appropriate modifications in the arguments, one can easily determine the results for any specific building frame of interest.
The authors hope that Seismic Design Aids will be a useful reference to researchers preparing for advanced courses in structural mechanics.
The authors extend their sincere thanks to the editorial board of CRC Press, Taylor & Francis Group, LLC, for publishing this book with great enthusiasm and encouragement.
The authors also want to place on record the generous permission accorded by Computers and Structures Inc., Berkeley, California, for the use of screenshots of SAP2000 software in this book.
The basic objective is to make nonlinear properties of RC elements available in a comprehensive form so that practicing engineers and researchers can use them readily without solving these complex equations.
It is hoped that many design engineers, particularly those facing the task of seismic assessment of buildings, will find this book a very useful practical reference.
We are grateful for any constructive comments or criticisms that readers wish to communicate and for notification of any errors detected in this book. The authors have received great assistance, encouragement, and inspiration from many sources.
Thanks are given to the colleagues of the Department of Structural Engineering, University of Naples Federico II, and to the Ministry of University Research (MiUR) for the fellowship assistance of one of the authors.
Thanks are also given to the students of advanced courses of structural engineering and to practicing engineers who attended several training programs, workshops, and lecture series organized by the authors and their colleagues in Italy and India for giving their exciting feedback to the approach and methodology of handling the subject.
Finally, the authors would like to place on record the extensive cooperation and kindness shown by their family members during the completion of this book within the scheduled time frame.
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