Acknowledgment is due the original author of this guide, W. Glenn Smoak, for all his efforts to prepare the first edition. For this edition, many people were involved in conducting research and field work, which provided valuable information for this update, and their contributions and hard work are greatly appreciated.
They include Kurt D. Mitchell, Richard Pepin, Gregg Day, Jim Bowen, Dr. Alexander Vaysburd, Dr. Benoit Bissonnette, Maxim Morency, Brandon Poos, Westin Joy, David (Warren) Starbuck, Dr. Matthew Klein, and John (Bret) Robertson. Dr. William F. Kepler obtained much of the funding to prepare this updated guide. Nancy Arthur worked extensively on reviewing and editing the guide specifications sections and was a great help making sure they said what I meant to say.
Teri Manross deserves recognition for the numerous hours she put into reviewing, editing and formatting this Guide. The assistance of these and numerous others is gratefully acknowledged.
For decades, the Bureau of Reclamation (Reclamation) has published both the Concrete Manual and the Standard Specifications for Repair of Concrete, M-47. 1 The subsequent revisions of these two documents (Bureau of Reclamation, 1975 and 1996), particularly chapter 7 of the Concrete Manual, have formed the basis for much of the concrete repair performed on Reclamation projects.
The first edition of Reclamation’s Guide to Concrete Repair (Smoak, 1996) presented a revised and updated M-47 and a narrative about the process that Reclamation recommends for obtaining successful repairs to concrete. This second edition of the Guide for Concrete Repair updates and revises the original Guide and M-47 to include much of the information gathered over the last 20 years through field work, international workshops, and collaborative research projects.
The Guide is now in two parts: Part I consists of chapters A. through E., with appendices. Part II contains the M-47, which is updated with new information and formatted to follow current Reclamation specification standards. Reclamation operates and maintains hydroelectric and water resources structures in the Western United States.
It serves as the fifth largest electric utility in the 17 Western States and the Nation's largest wholesale water supplier, administering 348 reservoirs with a total storage capacity of 245 million acre-feet (1 acre-foot, or 325,851 gallons of water, supplies enough water for a family of four for 1 year). Reclamation provides 1 out of 5 Western farmers (140,000) with irrigation water for 10 million farmland acres that produce 60 percent of the Nation's vegetables and 25 percent of its fruits and nuts.
In addition, Reclamation operates 58 hydroelectric powerplants averaging 42 billion kilowatt-hours annually. Reclamation also delivers 10 trillion gallons of water to more than 31 million people each year, and it manages in partnership 308 recreation sites visited by 90 million people per year. Clearly, there is a need for sound concrete repair and maintenance practices. The first edition of the Guide stated:
“It has become apparent that there is need for modernization and expansion of the information on the methods, materials, and procedures of concrete repair originally found in chapter 7 of the Concrete Manual (Bureau of Reclamation, 1975).”
That still holds true, and the process of updating continues with this edition.
Much of the information in the original Guide is still relevant. There are some significant changes in other areas. These changes are the result of several collaborative workshops and research efforts by Reclamation and others (NIST, 1995, 1999), (Naval Facilities Engineering Service Center, 2001), (Bureau of Reclamation, 2003), (Morency et al., 2005), (von Fay et al., 2009), (Bissonnette et al., 2012), as well as knowledge gained from project and field work.
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