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There are many different types of structures all around us. Each structure has a specific purpose or function. Some structures are simple, while others are complex; however there are two basic principles of composing structures. They must be capable of carrying the loads that they are designed for without collapsing. They must support the various parts of the external load in the correct relative position. A structure refers to a system with connected parts used to support a load. Some examples related to civil engineering are buildings, bridges and towers. However, these structures are very complex for analyze and design. At first, we will consider simple examples of structures and parts of structures like beams, trusses, frames etc. It is important for a structural engineer to recognize the various type of elements composing a structures and to be able to classify them as to there form and function. We will introduce some of these aspects.
Kinematical analysis of determinate structures:
By using basic kinematical elements, links and chains we may compose different complicated structures. With the upper formulas we control if the composed structures are determinate or not. But it is possible construction to be determinate and to be mechanism at the same time. This phenomenon we call kinematical instability and such a system mechanism. So the upper formulas give us information only for the number of the links but not for the kinematical stability. That is why we need a kinematical analysis. In the fowling example we show this phenomenon.
Another possibility of this phenomenon is instantly unstable system. Instantly unstable because after some displacement the system came stable but therefore not good for design. The kinematical analysis consist a way of composing the complicated structure. If we use only stable basic elements like a cantilever beam, a simple beam or a dyad the result should be stable structure.
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