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Underground Engineering For Sustainable Urban Development by Paul H. Gilbert PDF Free Download.
Committee on Underground Engineering for Sustainable Development
Committee on Geological and Geotechnical Engineering
Board on Earth Sciences and Resources
Division on Earth and Life Studies
THE NATIONAL ACADEMIES PRESS
NOTICE: The project that is the subject of this report was approved by the Governing Board of the National Research Council, whose members are drawn from the councils of the National Academy of Sciences, the National Academy of Engineering, and the Institute of Medicine.
The members of the committee responsible for the report were chosen for their special competences and with regard for appropriate balance.
Underground infrastructure presents unique challenges for engineers because usable underground space is limited in its extent and is not easily observed or accessible.
The safety, health, and welfare of the public at large are among the civil engineer’s primary concerns while designing, constructing, maintaining, and operating physical infrastructure, including underground infrastructure.
Underground engineers must rely on the skills and expert knowledge of all members of an interdisciplinary team to carry out their respective professional obligations within their scopes, budgets, and schedules.
A concept has recently been making its way into infrastructure systems requirements to be satisfi ed by the engineer: sustainability.
There are numerous definitions of sustainability, but this report refers to sustainability as the ability to obtain and use resources to meet current needs and improve standards of living without compromising the ability of those in the future to do the same.
Sustainable urban development includes the selective use of materials and resources and consideration of cost effectiveness, functionality, safety, aesthetics, and longevity.
The concept of sustainability changes the scale of many engineering projects. Engineering for sustainability means that engineers will need to move beyond traditional practice and consider their projects as part of a far larger physical and social system.
They will need to think about the functionality and behaviors of their projects over long time periods—perhaps well beyond the project’s service life.
This is especially true of underground infrastructure, the impacts of which on society can be widespread and beneficial, but the failure of which can be devastating, and the remnants of which—post-useful service life—can affect society and the use of the underground for centuries into the future.
The committee was provided a detailed statement of task intended to define the role of underground engineering and works in sustainable urban development, as well as to provide direction for a future research track that supports such engineering.
The broad and complex nature of the task necessitated only high-level consideration of its numerous points. The committee determined that simply responding one by one to each of the bulleted items in the statement of task would not fully respond to the intent of the task as described by the study sponsors.
Instead, the committee tackled each bullet through discussions of the defi nition of sustainability, the evolution of underground use, potential contributions of the underground to sustainable urban development,
Health and safety in the underground, technological challenges of underground engineering, and research and training needed to increase capacity for underground engineering that supports sustainable development.
The direction of committee deliberations and the report were informed through multiple discussions with the study sponsors.
Dr. Richard Fragaszy of the National Science Foundation provided numerous important insights regarding the concept of sustainability.
Dr. Jonathon Porter of the Federal Highway Administration also spoke with the committee to describe his agency’s expectations regarding the committee task, and answered the committee’s questions with care.
Committee deliberations and writings were also informed through excellent presentations during open sessions of committee meetings by Mr. Gordon Feller, Cisco Systems;
Dr. Edward Garboczi, National Institute for Standards and Technology; Mr. Michael Grahek, Los Angeles Department of Water and Power;
Mr. F. G. Wyman Jones, Los Angeles County Metropolitan Transit Authority; Mr. Richard Little, Keston Institute for Public Finance and Infrastructure Policy, University of Southern California;
Dr. Harvey Parker, Harvey Parker and Associates, Inc; Mr. Kevin Peterson, Peterson Design; Dr. Helen Reeves, British Geological Survey; Mr. Henry A. Russel, Parsons Brinkerhoff, Inc.;
Dr. Benedict Schwegler, Jr., Walt Disney Imagineering Research and Development; and Dr. Raymond Sterling, Louisiana Technical University. Numerous others also contributed to the committee process through less formal discussions with individual committee members and National Research Council (NRC) staff.
Although there are too many to list here, the committee owes a debt to each of these people. The committee is also grateful to the numerous NRC staff that provided direction, assistance in text development, and logistical and research support over the duration of the project.
Their contributions to this process kept us moving forward, focused on the statement of task, well fed, and well informed.
Our NRC study director, Sammantha Magsino, was particularly valuable to the committee in turning the many original text drafts on a range of topics from each committee member into coherent and consistent sections, chapters, and finally the report.
The study process has made it clear to the committee that the underground engineering needed to develop urban sustainability will require engineers in professional practice to rethink how they have traditionally delivered their work products.
It will also require those in research and education to consider new multidisciplinary approaches to improving technologies and increasing capacities.
Engineering the underground permanently changes the underground—a valuable, and irreplaceable resource.
It is the ethical responsibility of all making those changes to anticipate and understand the impacts of those changes to the larger physical and social infrastructures over time to avoid harming future generations, and, in fact, to help those future generations to thrive.
Adding to or changing the systems of systems that comprise urban infrastructure will demand that underground engineers become more multidisciplinary in their approaches and that they more comprehensively communicate and rely on the expertise of engineering scientists, planners, architects, and other professionals from all contributing disciplines.
This report presents a foundation for how this professional transition can be made, and it presents a framework for new education, training, and research strategies to prepare engineers and all their colleagues for the future.
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