The International Handbook of FRP Composites in Civil Engineering
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The International Handbook of FRP Composites in Civil Engineering

The International Handbook of FRP Composites in Civil Engineering by Manoochehr Zoghi | PDF Free Download.

Editor of The International Handbook of FRP Composites in Civil Engineering

Manoochehr Zoghi, a registered professional engineer, received his bachelor of science and master of engineering degrees in civil engineering from the J.B. Speed School of Engineering at the University of Louisville, Kentucky, in 1979 and 1981, respectively.

He received a doctor of philosophy in civil engineering from the School of Advanced Structures at the University of Cincinnati, Ohio, in 1988.

He is currently pursuing his MBA in sustainability from the San Francisco Institute of Architecture. Dr. Zoghi has had extensive academic, administrative, and consulting experiences.

He has served as a faculty and the graduate program director of the Department of Civil and Environmental Engineering and Engineering Mechanics at the University of Dayton.

Founding chair and professor of the Department of Civil and Environmental Engineering at Idaho State University; interim chair of the Department of Mechanical Engineering at California State University (CSU), Fresno.

And is currently the associate dean and professor of the Lyles College of Engineering at CSU, Fresno. Prior to joining the academe, he worked as a structural engineer for a consulting firm of Lockwood, Jones and Beals, Inc..

In Dayton, Ohio, where he was instrumental in research and development of the patented CON/SPAN® Bridge Systems.

Professor Zoghi has taught a wide variety of civil engineering, engineering mechanics, and construction management courses and has conducted research in interdisciplinary areas of infrastructure revitalization, nondestructive evaluation, and structural health monitoring, soil-structure interaction, geohazards, and geotechnical engineering.

He has received numerous awards for his teaching, research, and community service, including the Ohio Society of Professional Engineers’ Outstanding Engineering Educator Award and the International Concrete Repair Institute’s Award of Excellence in the transportation category for his collaborative bridge repair and rehabilitation project, sponsored through the Federal Highway Administration’s Innovative Bridge Research and Construction program.

A fellow of the American Society of Civil Engineers, a Coleman Fellow, and a diplomate of geotechnical engineering, Professor Zoghi has been cited in several who’s who indexes and is a Golden Key International honorary member.

He is a member of the American Society of Engineering Education, past president of the ASCE-Dayton Section, and an ABET (Accreditation Board for Engineering and Technology, Inc.) program evaluator (PEV).

He also serves on multiple national technical committees as well as the Board of Trustees of the California Homebuilding Foundation. A prolific author, Dr. Zoghi has published widely.

He serves as an associate editor of the ASCE’s Journal of Materials in Civil Engineering, an associate editor of the ASCE’s Journal of Professional Issues in Engineering Education and Practice, and is an editorial advisory panel member of the UK’s Institution of Civil Engineers’ flagship journal.

FRP Composites in Civil Engineering Contents

Part I Composites Primer

  • Chapter 1 Introduction
  • Chapter 2 Manufacturing Processes and QA/QC
  • Chapter 3 FRP Composite Constituent Materials
  • Chapter 4 Mechanics of Composite Materials
  • Chapter 5 Overview of Electroactive Polymers
  • Chapter 6 Life Cycle Costs of Composite Materials

Part II All-Composite Structures and Components

  • Chapter 7 Materials and Manufacturing
  • Chapter 8 Analysis of FRP Structural Members
  • Chapter 9 Deck Panels and Girders for Bridge Applications
  • Chapter 10 Connection Design for FRP Structural Members
  • Chapter 11 Examples and Case Studies

Part III Externally Bonded FRP Composite Systems for Rehabilitation

  • Chapter 12 Introduction
  • Chapter 13 Composite Materials Used in Rehabilitation
  • Chapter 14 Flexural and Shear Strengthening of Reinforced Concrete Structures
  • Chapter 15 Rehabilitation with NSM FRP Reinforcement
  • Chapter 16 Confinement of Reinforced Concrete Columns
  • Chapter 17 Strengthening of Masonry and Metallic Structures
  • Chapter 18 Externally Bonded FRP Composite and Viscoelastic Materials for Mitigating Vibrations of Floor Systems
  • Chapter 19 Durability

Part IV FRP Composites for Reinforcement of Concrete Structures

  • Chapter 20 Introduction
  • Chapter 21 Material Characteristics
  • Chapter 22 Design Procedures
  • Chapter 23 FRP Prestressed Concrete
  • Chapter 24 Concrete Columns Reinforced Internally with Fiber Reinforced Polymer Bars
  • Chapter 25 Codes and Standards
  • Chapter 26 Specific Durability Issues
  • Chapter 27 Quality Assurance/Quality Control, Maintenance, and Repair

Part V Hybrid FRP Composite Systems

  • Chapter 28 Introduction
  • Chapter 29 Material Characteristics and Fabrication Methods
  • Chapter 30 Construction Considerations of Hybrid Members
  • Chapter 31 Axial Hybrid Members
  • Chapter 32 Flexural and Axial/Flexural Hybrid Members
  • Chapter 33 QA/QC, Maintenance, and Repair of Hybrid Structures
  • Chapter 34 Examples and Case Studies

Part VI Nondestructive Testing and Evaluation

  • Chapter 35 Introduction
  • Chapter 36 Structural Health Monitoring
  • Chapter 37 Nondestructive Evaluation Methods for Composite Materials: General Overview, Visual Inspection, and Microwave Methods
  • Chapter 38 Nondestructive Evaluation Methods for Composite Materials: Infrared Thermography
  • Chapter 39 Nondestructive Evaluation Methods for Composite Materials: Acoustic Methods
  • Chapter 40 Load Testing of Bridge FRP Applications
  • Chapter 41 Smart Composites

Preface to The International Handbook of FRP Composites in Civil Engineering

In 2008, the National Academy of Engineering identified 14 grand challenges of the twenty-first century for engineering.

The grand challenges address complex social issues that affect our quality of life, which require innovative and systematic approaches to solve (NAE, 2008). One of the 14 grand challenges is to restore and improve urban infrastructure.

It is widely known that America’s infrastructure, along with those of many other countries, has been on the brink of crisis. Engineers of the twenty-first century face the formidable challenge of revitalizing the aging infrastructure in view of insufficient funding.

The American Society of Civil Engineers (ASCE) has given an overall grade of “D+” to U.S. infrastructure (ASCE, 2013a).

In its most recent report, “Failure to act: The impact of current infrastructure investment on America’s economic future,” ASCE stated that if infrastructure investment remains at current levels, the nation will face losses of $3.1 trillion in the gross domestic product (GDP) and $1.1 trillion in trade by the year 2020, costing the average household $3100 per year in disposable income (ASCE, 2013b).

Concerning raising the grades, ASCE recommends the following five key solutions: (1) increase federal leadership; (2) promote sustainability and resilience; (3) develop federal, regional, and state infrastructure plans; (4) address life-cycle costs (LCCs) and ongoing maintenance; and (5) increase and improve infrastructure investment from all stakeholders (ASCE, 2013a).

Clearly, infrastructure renewals that are based on the same practices, processes, technologies, and materials that were developed and employed in the twentieth century will most likely yield the same results (NRC, 2009).

These involve familiar long-standing incidences of service disruptions, increased operating and repair costs, and catastrophic failures such as Minnesota’s I-35W Bridge collapse. To paraphrase Albert Einstein, “we can’t solve problems by using the same kind of thinking we used when we created them.”

To implement the five key solutions stated earlier, a new paradigm for the renewal of critical infrastructure systems is needed, which is efficient, reliable, and cost-effective.

Extensive research has yielded innovative technologies and materials that could prolong and extend the service lives of existing infrastructure while providing opportunities for the design and construction of highly durable new structures.

Today, new technologies are available that enable monitoring the condition and performance of infrastructure systems, while self-diagnosing, self-healing, and self-repairing systems can be designed to afford greater resiliency, fewer long-term service disruptions, and lower LCCs of infrastructure systems (Amin and Stringer, 2008).

Fiber-reinforced polymer (FRP) composite technology, developed primarily for the aerospace, defense, and marine industries, possesses many of the features mentioned earlier for infrastructure applications.

Christened “the materials of the twenty-first century,” the application of FRP composite technology has resulted in a paradigm shift in material usage due to its inherent superior properties.

The numerous advantages of FRP composites over conventional construction materials such as steel, concrete, and wood are well known. There have been myriad successful applications of FRP composites for repairing and retrofitting existing infrastructure systems as well as for new construction over the last three decades.

FRP composites are no longer considered the “space-age” structures used exclusively for stealth bombers or space shuttles (ACMA, 2004). They have become an integral part of the construction industry because of their versatility, enhanced durability, and fatigue characteristics, noncorrosiveness, high strength-to-weight ratio, accelerated construction feature, lower maintenance, and LCCs.

Many more composite products are being actively developed and are emerging for civil infrastructure applications, which is considered to be potentially the largest market for FRP composites (ACMA, 2004).

There have been a number of professional organizations and technical committees worldwide involved in developing and preparing codes, standards, test methods, and specifications regarding FRP composites for construction.

In addition, there are a variety of regional, national, and international conferences and trade exhibitions organized regularly that cover all aspects of FRP composites for construction and showcase new ideas and innovations, emerging technologies, best practices, and case studies.

It is the goal of this handbook to capture important features of FRP composites, in relation to civil infrastructure applications, in a single volume. This handbook is not intended to serve as a textbook.

There have been several outstanding textbooks published such as Barbero (2011), Bank (2006), and Hollaway and Head (2001).

By and large, the mission of The International Handbook of FRP Composites in Civil Engineering is to provide a single, comprehensive, ready-to-use reference source for the practicing engineer to keep abreast of advances in materials, techniques, practices, and structural health monitoring (SHM) of FRP composites in civil infrastructure.

The main focus is on professional applications, including design formulas, tables, and charts that could provide immediate answers to questions from practical work. This handbook will also provide an invaluable reference for undergraduate and graduate students, researchers, and seasoned professionals.

Although the primary audience will be the civil engineering community, other engineering disciplines including architectural, materials, and aerospace engineering will benefit from this single-volume source as well.

The state-of-the-practice information that is presented herein will be useful for manufacturers and suppliers of high-performance fiber-reinforced polymer composites as well as for engineering firms, the construction industry, and state departments of transportation.

This handbook is divided into seven parts. Each part, including multiple chapters, focuses on different aspects and/or applications of FRP composites.

Part I, “Composites Primer,” is intended to provide a brief overview of FRP, comprising historical perspective, codes and standards, manufacturing processes, constituent materials, mechanics of composite materials, and LCCs.

Historically, FRP composite has not been a required course as part of the undergraduate civil engineering curriculum. Thus, the majority of practicing civil engineers have not had any background in composites.

The aim of this part is to bridge this gap and to provide a basic understanding of the fundamentals of FRP composites in relation to civil infrastructure applications. In addition, a brief introduction concerning the LCC, along with sustainability and environmental implications of FRP composites, has been provided herein.

FRP composite modular bridge decks offer viable alternative solutions to conventional materials such as reinforced concrete and steel bridges, which are prone to corrosion. FRP decks have intrinsic characteristics that enable them to be suitable for the Federal Highway Administration’s (FHWA’s) “Bridge of the Future” program (FHWA, 2013).

Their primary benefits include durability (i.e., highly resistant to corrosion and fatigue), lightweight, high strength, rapid installation, lower or competitive LCC, and high-quality manufacturing processes under controlled environments (ACMA, 2004, 2013).

In recent years, there have been numerous successful bridge deck installations worldwide utilizing FRP composites. The main focus of Part II, “All-Composite Structures and Components,” is to present an overview of bridge deck applications along with several case studies.

There is also a chapter dedicated to the critical topic of connection design for FRP structural members. Chapters in Part III, “Externally Bonded FRP Composite Systems for Rehabilitation,” deal with external reinforcement for rehabilitation.

Unstressed and prestressed flexural and shear strengthening of reinforced concrete structures, unstressed and prestressed near-surface mounted reinforcement, confinement of concrete columns, strengthening of masonry, wood and metallic structures, and durability issues.

In addition, several numerical examples are included to demonstrate the design procedure for each case. Part IV, “FRP Composites for Reinforcement of Concrete Structures,” focuses on FRP composites, which has been growing rapidly in recent years.

In addition to material characteristics, design procedures, codes and standards, and state of the practice related to the internal reinforcement for concrete columns as well as FRP prestressed concrete applications have been discussed in detail.

Furthermore, specific durability issues along with quality assurance–quality control (QA/QC) issues have been discussed. Part V, “Hybrid FRP Composite Systems,” presents the topic of FRP composite hybrid systems, with an emphasis on design considerations of axial, flexural, and axial–flexural hybrid members.

In addition, construction considerations along with QA/QC and repair of hybrid structures have been discussed. Several relevant examples and case studies are also included. Part VI, “Nondestructive Testing and Evaluation,” elaborates on the applications of nondestructive testing and evaluation for SHM of FRP composites.

In order to assure the structural integrity and longterm reliability of structures retrofitted via FRP composites, it is critical to identify any potential defects during and following the application of FRP throughout the structure’s service life.

State-of-the-art technologies for nondestructive evaluation and SHM are expounded in this part. The case studies specifically refer to bridge engineering applications. Moreover, an entire chapter is devoted to the important topic of smart composites.

Smart materials can actively sense, respond, and occasionally control the environment and internal states. The chapter provides up-to-date information as it relates to FRP composites.

Finally, Part VII, “Glossary,” includes several appendices involving lists of FRP-related books, journals, conference proceedings and symposiums, organizations, and typical research papers in selected areas.

The impetus for this handbook originated several years ago when I was involved in a couple of FRP-related bridge research projects. One of the projects was sponsored by the FHWA through the Innovative Bridge Research and Construction (IBRC) initiative and administered by the Office of Bridge Technology, Infrastructure Core Business Unit.

The IBRC initiative promotes the use of innovative materials and materials technologies in bridge applications (FHWA, 2013).

As part of this program, two severely deteriorated long-span, precast, prestressed concrete box girder bridges were strengthened utilizing advanced carbon fiber–reinforced polymer (CFRP) composite strips, post-tensioned via the stress head system that was developed and patented in Switzerland (Zoghi et al., 2006).

SHM and a series of full-scale live-load tests were also incorporated in the rehabilitation plan. The technique, the first of its type in the United States, entailed a collaboration between government, academia, and industry from the United States and Switzerland.

As the principal investigator (PI) of the project, I recognized the need for a single-volume source throughout the design, construction, nondestructive testing and evaluation, and SHM stages.

The second project that was the impetus for the publication of this handbook was in relation to an all-composite vehicular bridge constructed in July 1997, rechristened Tech 21 (BCEO, 2001).

The two-lane, short-span bridge deck, supported on three trapezoidal beams fabricated using E-glass fibers with polyester resin, was manufactured utilizing sandwich configuration with a center core made by bonding orthotropic fiberglass and polyester tubes (Zoghi et al, 2003).

Tech 21, the third all-composite vehicular bridge and first fully instrumented of its type in the United States comprised of an extensive health-monitoring system installed during its fabrication. The structure was designed and manufactured by Martin Marietta Materials, Inc.

This project was also a joint venture between government, industry, and academia. Intimately involved in various aspects of the research, including durability study, finite-element modeling, full-scale live-load testing, and structural health monitoring.

I became aware of the lack of a comprehensive yet quick reference handbook that would provide answers to pertinent practical questions.

Evidently, the idea of a need for The International Handbook of FRP Composites in Civil Engineering was born through preceding personal experiences and international collaboration.

From the inception of the project, the editors of CRC Press, Michael Slaughter (executive commissioning editor), Allison Shatkin (senior commissioning editor), and Theresa Gutierrez (editorial project development), wholeheartedly embraced the proposal and have since provided their unwavering support throughout this very long process.

Their continued support is greatly appreciated. Also, Amy Blalock (project coordinator), Robert Sims (project editor), and Mythili Gopi (project manager) and their associates worked diligently to bring this handbook to realization.

I am forever grateful to them for their hard work and dedication. Paraphrasing Sir Isaac Newton, “If I have seen further it is by standing on the shoulders of giants.” This is indeed the case regarding the publication of the present handbook.

The editorship of each individual part was carried out by the designated associate editor(s), who administered the tasks of recruiting respective authors to prepare chapters and adhere to publication guidelines and deadlines, along with the completion of the review process.

In addition, several associate editors drafted numerous chapters in their respective parts. I would like to express my appreciation to all the associate editors and authors for preparing the highest quality manuscripts that constitute the crux of this handbook and for their invaluable contributions and commitment.

Finally, my heartfelt gratitude to my family for their continued support and encouragement.

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