Advanced Methods of Structural Analysis by Igor A. Karnovsky and Olga Lebed
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Advanced Methods of Structural Analysis by Igor A. Karnovsky and Olga Lebed

Main Contents of Advanced Methods of Structural Analysis by Igor A. Karnovsky and Olga Lebed

Part 1. Statically Determinate Structures.

- Kinematical Analysis of Structures.

- General Theory of Influence Lines.

- Multispan Beams and Trusses.

- Three-Hinged Arches.

- Cables.

- Deflections of Elastic Structures.

Part 2. Statically Indeterminate Structures.

- The Force Method.

- The Displacement Method.

- Mixed Method.

- Influence Lines Method.

- Matrix Stiffness Method.

Part 3. Special Topics

- Plastic Behavior of Structures.

- Stability of Elastic Systems.

- Dynamics of Elastic Systems.

Preface to Advanced Methods of Structural Analysis by Igor A. Karnovsky and Olga Lebed

Theory of the engineering structures is a fundamental science. Statements and methods of this science are widely used in different fields of engineering.

Among them are the civil engineering, ship-building, aircraft, robotics, space structures, as well as numerous structures of special types and purposes – bridges, towers, etc.

In recent years, even micromechanical devices become objects of structural analysis. Theory of the engineering structures is alive and is a very vigorous science.

This theory offers an engineer-designer a vast collection of classical methods of analysis of various types of structures.

These methods contain in-depth fundamental ideas and, at the present time, they are developed with sufficient completeness and commonness, aligned in a well-composed system of conceptions, procedures, and algorithms, use modern mathematical techniques and are brought to elegant simplicity and perfection.

We now live in a computerized world. A role and influence of modern engineering software for analysis of structures cannot be overestimated.

The modern computer programs allow providing different types of analysis for any sophisticated structure. As this takes place, what is the role of classical theory of structures with its in-depth ideas, prominent conceptions, methods, theorems, and principles?

Knowing classical methods of Structural Analysis is necessary for any practical engineer. An engineer cannot rely only on the results provided by a computer.

Computer is a great help in modeling different situations and speeding up the process of calculations, but it is the sole responsibility of an engineer to check the results obtained by a computer.

If users of computer engineering software do not have sufficient knowledge of fundamentals of structural analysis and of understanding of physical theories and principal properties of structures,

then he/she cannot check obtained numerical results and their correspondence to an adopted design diagram, as well as explain results obtained by a computer.

Computer programs “. . . can make a good engineer better, but it can make a poor engineer more dangerous” (Cook R.D, Malkus D.S, Plesha M.E (1989) Concepts and applications of finite element analysis, 3rd edn. Wiley, New York).

Only the knowledge of fundamental theory of structures allows to estimate and analyze numerical data obtained from a computer; predict the behavior of a structure as a result of changing a design diagram and parameters; design a structure which satisfies certain requirements;

perform serious scientific analysis; and make valid theoretical generalizations. No matter how sophisticated the structural model is,

no matter how effective the numerical algorithms are, no matter how powerful the computers are that implement these algorithms, it is the engineer who analyzes the end result produced from these algorithms.

Only an individual who has a deep knowledge and understanding of the structural model and analysis techniques can produce a qualitative analysis.

In 1970, one of the authors of this Advanced Methods of Structural Analysis book was a professor at a structural engineering university in Ukraine. At that time computers were started to be implemented in all fields of science, structural analysis being one of them.

We, the professors and instructors, were facing a serious methodical dilemma: given the new technologies, how to properly teach the students?

Would we first give students a strong basis in classical structural analysis and then introduce them to the related software, or would we directly dive into the software after giving the student a relatively insignificant introduction to classical analysis.

We did not know the optimal way for solving this problem. On this subject we have conducted seminars and discussions on a regular basis.

We have used these two main teaching models, and many different variations of them. The result was somewhat surprising.

The students who were first given a strong foundation in structural analysis quickly learned how to use the computer software, and were able to give a good qualitative analysis of the results.

The students who were given a brief introduction to structural analysis and a strong emphasis on the computer software, at the end were not able to provide qualitative results of the analysis.

The interesting thing is that the students themselves were criticizing the later teaching strategy. Therefore, our vision of teaching structural analysis is as follows:

on the first step, it is necessary to learn analytical methods, perform detailed analysis of different structures by hand in order to feel the behavior of structures, and correlate their behavior with obtained results; the second step is a computer application of engineering software.

Authors wrote the Advanced Methods of Structural Analysis book on the basis of their many years of experience of teaching the Structural Analysis at the universities for graduate and postgraduate students as well as on the basis of their experience in consulting companies.

This Advanced Methods of Structural Analysis book is written for students of universities and colleges pursuing Civil or Structural Engineering Programs, instructors of Structural Analysis, and engineers and designers of different structures of modern engineering.

The objective of the Advanced Methods of Structural Analysis book is to help a reader to develop an understanding of the ideas and methods of structural analysis and to teach a reader to estimate and explain numerical results obtained by hand;

this is a fundamental stone for preparation of reader for numerical analysis of structures and for use of engineering software with full understanding.

The textbook offers the reader the fundamental theoretical concepts of Structural Analysis, classical analytical methods, algorithms of their application,

comparison of different methods, and a vast collection of distinctive problems with their detailed solution, explanation, analysis, and discussion of results; many of the problems have a complex character.

Considered examples demonstrate features of structures, their behavior, and peculiarities of applied methods. Solution of all the problems is brought to final formula or number.

Analyses of the following structures are considered: statically determinate and indeterminate multispan beams, arches, trusses, and frames.

These structures are subjected to fixed and moving loads, changes of temperature, settlement of supports, and errors of fabrication.

Also the cables are considered in detail. In many cases, same structure under different external actions is analyzed.

It allows the reader to be concentrated on one design diagram and perform complex analysis of behavior of a structure.

In many cases, same structure is analyzed by different methods or by one method in different forms (for example,

Displacement method in canonical, and matrix forms). It allows to perform comparison analysis of applied methods and see advantages and disadvantages of different methods.

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