Design of Analog Circuits Through Symbolic Analysis
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Design of Analog Circuits Through Symbolic Analysis

Design of Analog Circuits Through Symbolic Analysis by Mourad Fakhfakh, Esteban Tlelo-Cuautle, and Francisco V. Fernández | PDF Free Download.

Editors of Design of Analog Circuits Through Symbolic Analysis 

Mourad Fakhfakh got the engineering and the Ph.D. degrees from the national engineering school of Sfax Tunisia in 1996 and 2006 respectively.

From 1998 to 2004 he worked in the Tunisian National Company of Electricity and Gas (STEG) as the head of the technical intervention department.

In September 2004, he joined the higher institute of electronics and communications (ISECS) where he is currently working as an Assistant Professor.

Dr. Fakhfakh serves as a reviewer in some prestigious journals and international conferences. He has been a TPC member in prominent international conferences and (co-)authored more than 80 papers in international journals and conferences.

His research interests include analog & RF design automation, symbolic analysis, analog circuit synthesis, and optimization techniques.

Esteban Tlelo-Cuautle received a B.Sc. degree from Instituto Tecnológico de Puebla (ITP), México in 1993. He then received both M.Sc. and Ph.D. degrees from Instituto Nacional de Astrofísica, Óptica y Electrónica (INAOE), México, in 1995 and 2000, respectively.

From 1995-2000, he was a part of the electronic engineering department at ITP, and in 2001 he was appointed as full professor-researcher at INAOE.

From 2009- 2010, he served as a Visiting Researcher in the department of electrical engineering at the University of California Riverside. He has authored and co-authored four books, ten book chapters, 45 journal articles, and around 100 conference papers.

He is an IEEE Senior Member, IEICE Member, and a member of the National System for Researchers (SNI-CONACyT in México). He regularly serves as a reviewer in 18 high impact-factor journals in engineering and 15 internationally recognized conferences.

He has been a member of Program Committees at prestigious international conferences. His research interests include systematic synthesis and behavioral modeling and simulation of linear and nonlinear circuits and systems, chaotic oscillators, symbolic analysis, multi-objective evolutionary algorithms, and analog/RF and mixed-signal design automation tools.

Francisco V. Fernándezgot the Physics-Electronics degree from the University of Seville in 1988 and his Ph.D. degree in 1992. In 1993, he worked as a postdoctoral research fellow at Katholieke Universiteit Leuven (Belgium).

Between 1995 and 2009 he was Associate Professor at the Dept. of Electronics and Electromagnetism of University of Seville, and since 2009 he is a Full Professor at the same University. He is also a researcher at CSIC-IMSE-CNM.

His research interests lie in the design and design methodologies of analog and mixed-signal circuits. Dr. Fernández has authored or edited three books and co-authored more than 100 papers in international journals and conferences.

Dr. Fernández is currently the Editor-in-Chief of Integration, the VLSI Journal (Elsevier). He regularly serves at the Program Committee of several international conferences. Besides the above, he has also participated as the main researcher in several National and European R&D projects.

Analog Circuits Through Symbolic Analysis Contents

  • Recent Development in Symbolic Analysis: An Overview
  • Modified Nodal Analysis
  • Modeling Active Devices with Nullor for Analog Signal Processing
  • Generation of the Transfer Functions for MIMO Systems
  • Symbolic Analysis of Analog Circuits by Flow-Graphs
  • Analysis and Synthesis of Electronic Circuits by Two-Graph Method 
  • Approximation Techniques in Symbolic Circuit Analysis
  • Symbolic Analysis by Determinant Decision Diagrams and Applications
  • Sensitivity Computation Based on the Auxiliary Circuits
  • Symbolic Noise Analysis in Analog Circuits 
  • Symbolic Pole/Zero Analysis 
  • Automatic Nonlinear Behavioral Model Generation Using Symbolic Circuit Analysis
  • Nonlinear Template-Free Symbolic Performance Modeling for Design and Process Variation Analysis of Analog Circuits
  • Symbolic Analysis Techniques for Fault Diagnosis and Automatic Design of Analog Circuits
  • Symbolic Characterization of VCOs and its Application to Optimization-Based Design 
  • AMS Synthesis Using Symbolic Methods 
  • Application of Symbolic Circuit Analysis for Failure Detection and Optimization of Industrial Integrated Circuits

Preface to Design of Analog Circuits Through Symbolic Analysis

Symbolic analyzers have the potential to offer knowledge to sophomores as well as practitioners of analog circuit design.

Actually, they are an essential complement to numerical simulators, since they provide insight into circuit behavior that numerical analyzers do not.

Symbolic analysis of electronic circuits addresses the generation of symbolic expressions for the parameters that describe the performance of linear and nonlinear circuits in the three domains: DC, AC, and time; some or all the circuit parameters can be kept as symbols.

In particular, in AC analysis these expressions are generated as ratios of polynomials in the Laplace variable s, with, as coefficients, the sum of products of small-signal elements of the design vector.

Symbolic expressions for characteristics, such as voltage and current gain, input and output impedance, etc. can be easily obtained. Furthermore, it is easy to acquire network characteristics such as sensitivity and noise.

Due to the fact that these expressions remain valid during the change of component values (as long as models remain valid), designers can not only have an insight into the behavior of the network but also they can use the expressions to optimize the circuit’s performances.

The first generation of symbolic analyzers was proposed in the late ’60s. Since then, these analyzers were promptly recognized as crucial tools to automatically generate the behavioral model of analog integrated circuits.

Actually, many techniques and programs have been presented for the symbolic analysis of linear and even nonlinear lumped time-invariant circuits.

These proposed techniques can be classified into four major categories:

Matrix manipulation methods,

Graph-based approaches:

  • Tree enumeration methods,
  • (Signal) flow-graphs,

Parameter extraction methods,

Interpolation approaches. 

This book presents details and exemplifies such famous techniques. This makes the book a good resource for circuit analysis. Thus, it is intended for students and researchers as well as for industrial designers.

For large (and medium) size circuits, computed analytical expressions become too large and their number of terms is so important that its manipulation and interpretation become impossible.

The book puts also the stress on this problem and highlights some techniques adapted to the approximate symbolic description of circuit characteristics.

Moreover, industrial current R&D topics, recent developments, and future trends in the field of symbolic analysis are highlighted.

The Outline of The Book is as Follows

Chapter 1, an overview chapter, presents a survey of the state-of-the-art of symbolic analysis techniques for the design and verification of analog integrated circuits.

It highlights major developments in this field over the past several years and presents outstanding problems for future research.

Chapter 2 gives a description of the Modified Nodal Analysis method. Analysis procedures of circuits containing classical and modern circuit elements are described.

These methods are explained clearly in a number of examples with a view to the matrix form which is appropriate for computer implementation.

Chapter 3 describes the modeling of null or-based active devices from the circuit level of abstraction: active devices (voltage-mode, current-mode, and mixed-mode operations).

Several examples using null or-based models illustrate its use to calculate fully-symbolic small-signal characteristics of linear analog circuits as well as on the analysis of nonlinear circuits.

Chapter 4 presents two approaches based on the state equations and on the semi-state equations, respectively-for the generation of the transfer functions of MIMO systems in symbolic/numeric-symbolic matrix form.

The state variable approach is developed in two variants: one uses the circuit matrices A, B, C, D, and the other one directly uses the state equations in the frequency domain.

The method based on semi-state equations is developed both in two matrix representation and in a single matrix representation. Illustrative examples are given.

Chapter 5 details and exemplifies the flow-graph approach. It presents used approaches for the determination of the modified Coates flow-graphs. Symbolic sensitivity using this technique is briefly introduced.

Chapter 6 introduces the two-graph method. It details the construction of the corresponding networks and presents such analysis both the frequency and time domains. The chapter also focuses on partitioning techniques and on active RC-circuit synthesis using the two-graph method.

Chapter 7 details approximation techniques in symbolic circuit analysis. It reviews from the first approximation techniques, only intended to improve the interpretability of symbolic results, to the most modern approximate symbolic analysis techniques based on the approximation of the network equations and the direct generation of the approximated symbolic results.

Chapter 8 deals with the symbolic analysis by the determinant decision diagrams. It shows how DDD-based symbolic analysis enables the exact symbolic analysis of many analog circuits substantially larger than the previous methods and open new applications for symbolic analysis.

This chapter also covers approximation methods based on DDD-based symbolic analysis. Chapter 9 deals with sensitivity computation based on the auxiliary circuits.

Three procedures, for the sensitivity analysis using auxiliary circuits: the Bykhovsky Perkins Cruz’s method, the incremental-circuit approach and the adjoint-circuit approach, are presented.

The advantages and drawbacks of these procedures are pointed out. Some illustrative examples are exposed.

Chapter 10 focuses on symbolic noise analysis in analog circuits. The symbolic noise analysis of linear or linearized analog circuits at the transistor level of abstraction is presented.

A brief exposition on the signal path approach into analog circuits working in voltage-mode and current-mode is given. The computation of symbolic noise parameters of analog circuits is detailed. Two examples are introduced to illustrate the potentiality of the approach.

Chapter 11 treats symbolic pole/zero analysis. It reviews some recently reported techniques purposely developed to generate approximate symbolic expressions for poles and zeros under given accuracy constraints.

Chapter 12 focuses on the automatic nonlinear behavioral model generation using symbolic circuit analysis.

It gives an overview of the symbolic/numerical algorithms for extraction of dominant behavior of linear systems, e.g. formulas for poles and zeros as well as algorithms for generating behavioral models from nonlinear differential-algebraic systems of equations.

Applications of analysis and modeling of mixed electrical and mechanical systems are also presented.

Chapter 13 deals with nonlinear template-free symbolic performance models of design and process variation.

It presents a method for generating performance models which need no prior specification of an equation template, and that handle strongly nonlinear circuits, statistical process variations, and a variety of analysis types.

Chapter 14 is concerned with symbolic analysis techniques for analog circuit fault diagnosis and automatic design. It presents a symbolic approach to the design centering problem, and details testability and fault diagnosis of analog integrated circuits.

In addition, it highlights the modeling of power electronic devices based on symbolic techniques.

Chapter 15 presents a brief description of CMOS ring VCOs, where the particular emphasis for differential delay cell ring VCOs is given. Then, the symbolic characterizations of the VCOs are detailed.

The proposed approach relies on the resolution of the differential equations modeling each VCO delay cell. A working example for the case for asymmetric load ring VCO is presented, and obtained results are compared against those obtained with numerical simulation.

Chapter 16 describes the use of symbolic methods applied to the automatic exploration and characterization of analog and mixed-signal systems topologies and architectures.

Synthesis techniques based on algorithm-level, using an HDL description, and employing, both, a modified signal flow-graph approach and a pattern recognition technique are presented.

Chapter 17 deals with the application of symbolic circuit analysis for failure detection and optimization of industrial integrated circuits.

It demonstrates how symbolic analysis and approximation allow analyzing industrial analog building blocks systems which were considered to be symbolically unsolvable before.

Besides circuit failure analysis and modeling, a novel methodology that provides a new application-specific compensation for achieving the highest performance requirements is given. The methodology is demonstrated on several industrial examples.

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