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Advances in Building Technologies and Construction Materials 2018 by Joao M. P. Q. Delgado, Guest Editors: Robert Cerny, Antonio Gilson Barbosa de Lima, and Ana S. Guimaraes | PDF Free Download.
With the increasing depth of underground coal mine and the deterioration of engineering geologic environment, weak or harmful strata (i.e., water burst, drift sand, and sludge) are frequently encountered and easily result in roof collapse, caving and deformation of permanent supports, thus presenting great difficulty for mine construction [1, 2].
Joints, mining-induced fractures, and poor geologic structure in surrounding rock mass provide good groundwater courses for groundwater, which often results in the abrupt increase of mine and water disasters and brings tremendous challenges for construction progress and safety .
Grouting consolidation technology has become the main method of controlling water burst disaster in the underground coal-mining projects [4, 5].
Traditional particle-type grouting materials (e.g., cementwater and glass-type grouting materials) easily become diluted and dispersed under water-flowing conditions because of their poor grout ability and cannot meet the engineering requirements .
So, the chemical grouting materials with lower viscosity, better liquidity and grout ability into microfissures, and adjustable range of curing time have been widely applied to the management of underground coal mine water bursts.
*e chemical grouting materials such as polyurethanes, urea resin, and epoxy resin are used commonly in grouting reinforcement projects.
*e polyurethane grouting materials have been widely applied because of their volume expansion and plastic deformation when curing.
However, these materials have obvious defects, such as higher viscosity, weaker fire resistance, and trength reduction, caused by foaming and reacting with water. Especially during the reaction with water, they release hazardous gas and bring serious harm to human health [7–11].
Urea resin is a water-dilatable resin produced by the reaction of urea with formaldehyde. It has the advantages of lower cost and viscosity, but its adhesive property and induration strength are weak. M
oreover, urea resin decomposes with water, and a large quantity of free formaldehyde separates out, polluting the environment .
Conventional chemical grouting reinforcement materials have defects such as toxicity, high viscosity, weak grout ability, lower strength, and poor anticorrosion and fire resistance, and these defects restrict the large-scale engineering application.
Because of the high TDS (total dissolved solid) and corrosive components in mine groundwater, the conventional chemical grouting reinforcement cannot meet permanent supporting requirements penetrating drift sands in the shaft, which will affect construction progress and safety in production.
Aiming at the special geologic conditions of sinking and driving engineering passing through the drift-sand layer, the polymer two-component chemical grouting materials and pregrouting construction technology, which have the functions of both water plugging and consolidation were put forward.
*us, the water burst passing over the drift-sand layer under complicated conditions was effectively controlled, and the shaft construction progress and safety were ensured.
&e development of civil engineering in the course of centuries meant a constant struggle with available materials, spans, or height, active loads, and the forces of nature: water, fire, wind, and earthquakes.
While construction activities improve the quality of human lives, they also have significant impact on the environment. &e production of construction materials requires energy and generates greenhouse gases.
Low-cost or affordable construction technologies and building materials are often pushed as a magic potion in meeting the evergrowing demand for rapid housing delivery in developing economies.
New advanced materials offer opportunities to change the way in which we construct and retrofit buildings. &ey give added value in terms of increased performance and functionality. &e reduction of carbon footprint for construction materials can start at the production phase, where energy-efficient processes can be developed and waste or recycled materials can be employed.
New materials can also help address the new challenges of durability in a changing climate. &is special issue is the result of the huge success presented by previous special issues of the same topic, and as the previous special issues had a great acceptation by the scientific community with 61 papers submitted and 26 papers accepted for publication.
A considerable number of experimental and numerical papers address new research advances and applications in the concrete material. J. Yue presents a numerical model to analyse the multilevel nonlinear mechanism of the reinforced concrete framed structures in five structural levels.
Based on the presented deformation equivalent principle, a generalized stiffness damage model was developed for each structural level. An impact factor was proposed to reflect the damage correlations between different structural levels.
In order to verify this method, the proposed method was used to study the damage evolutions at various structural levels of a 12-storey frame structure.
Zhao et al. present an extension of Balshin’s model to develop a prediction model of compressive strength for three types of high-porosity cast-in-situ foamed concrete (cement mix, cement-fly ash mix, and cement-sand mix) with dry densities of less than 700 kg/m3 .
Zhao et al. present the development of steel fiber-reinforced expanded-shale lightweight concrete (SFRELC) with high freeze-thaw resistance.
Based on the test results, suggestions are given out for the optimal mix proportion of SFRELC to satisfy the durability requirement of freeze-thaw resistance. M. J. Kim and K. Y. Ann evaluate the corrosion risk of internal chloride and external chloride from three different exposure conditions.
&ey concluded that an increase of the drying ratio in the exposure condition resulted in an increase of the corrosion rate after initiation.
Also, the authors predicted the chloride penetration with different exposure conditions to determine the service life of the reinforced concrete structure.
Lee et al. investigate experimentally the dowel behaviour of rebars in small concrete blocks for the sliding slab track on railway bridges. &is work can be useful for developing a more rational model to represent the actual dowel behaviour of the rebars embedded in small concrete blocks.
Gu et al. investigate the macroperformance and microstructure of ultrahigh-performance concrete (UHPC) before and after the freezing-thawing action. &ey show that UHPC possessed very excellent freezing-thawing resistance due to its dense microstructure.
After the freezing-thawing action, cracks occurred, and the authors considered that the mismatch of the thermal expansion coefficients of the aggregate and the paste is the reason for the cracking at the sand-paste interface.
Yan et al. investigate the mechanical properties, the mesodamage properties, and the microproperties of cement-emulsified asphalt in plastic concrete by computed tomography, scanning electron microscopy, X-ray diffraction, and thermogravimetric analysis.
X. Yang and H. Wang analyse, experimentally, the seismic behaviour of rammed earth walls with precast concrete tie columns.
Luo et al. present the development of a new structural material named “steel fiber polymer structural concrete (SFPSC)” with features of both high strength and high toughness and its application to bridge superstructures, in hot-wet environments. &e chemical attack of concrete structures and other building materials is analysed in detail by some authors.
S. I. Hong and K. Y. Ann present a study to assess the service life of concrete structures exposed to the tidal zone with the proposed numerical model for predicting the moisture and chloride transport in concrete.
Wang et al. study numerically and experimentally the behaviour of the calcium silicate board metallic-framework drywall assembly with a junction box. &is is innovative research that put forward, in first time, the quantitative research on influence of the embedded junction box on fire resistance of metal frame walls and analyzes the weakness.
Besides those, there are several interesting topics in the issue of cement materials. Rubia et al. present the preparation of cement pastes with simultaneous functional additions (micro- and nanosilica and nanozinc oxide) by a novel low shear rate dispersion method, in order to avoid health risks. &ey concluded that the common manual mixing method and the novel method presented a similar hydration behaviour of the different cement pastes prepared, but the novel method avoided the exposure to the nanoparticles, therefore minimizing health risks.
H. Yang and Y. Che analyse the effects of nano-CaCO3/limestone composite particles on the hydration products and pore structure of cementitious materials.
Kim et al. investigate the rheological properties of blended cement pastes using a rotational viscometer and a dynamic shear rheometer. &e results showed that the rotational viscometer can be used to study the flow characteristics of cement pastes with or without mineral admixtures.
Tongyuan et al. present a series of experiments on restrictioninduced cracking behaviours as well as free shrinkage, water loss, and mechanical properties of dry-mixed plastering mortar (DMPM), in order to evaluate the cracking resistance of DMPM and analyse the influence of environmental conditions on the cracking tendency of DMPM.
Another important issue is the ecology of building materials. Gomez-Balbuena et al ´ . present the technological application of the solid waste resulted from the activities of carved Quarry extraction in a new polymeric material with properties similar to those of a traditional mortar.
&ey concluded that the polymeric material uses low amounts of cement with respect to the traditional mortar, and it is elaborated with the recycled quarry as they are presented in its granulometry.
Al-Khateeb et al. evaluate the use of a waste stone sawdust filler with asphalt binders and compare the mechanical properties of the waste filler-asphalt mastic with those of the asphalt mastic produced using the typical limestone filler.
Estevez-Cimadevila et al ´ . study the bending behaviour of T-section beams composed of a glulam web and an upper cross-laminated timber flange. &e variation in the stiffness depended on the relation between the compressive and tensile moduli of elasticity parallel to the grain, and its influence on the deflection was analysed using a finite element method.
Li et al. study the deterioration mechanism of recycled plaster (R-P). &e large specific surface area (SSA), improper preparation temperature, increased water requirement of R-P, and microstructure of its hardened body were analysed.
Zhou et al. propose a new connector for the bamboo (timber) frame joint based on a comprehensive analysis of the mechanical performance of several wood connections. &e authors, also, proposed a simplified moment-rotation hysteresis model for the joint.
Studies on soils are presented by J. Zhai and X. Cai, who analyse the physical and mechanical characteristics of expansive soils from Pingdingshan (China), which provide a reliable basis for engineering design and can be used in the calculation of slope stability. &e finite element method was used to calculate the different positions of the soil slope layers and select the corresponding strength parameters.
Lu et al. analyse the influence of cumulative plastic strain, drywet cycles, and amplitudes on the soil resistivity.
A new damage factor based on resistivity is proposed to evaluate the long-term performance of the compacted clay material. &e results show that the dry-wet cycles and amplitudes have a significant effect on the damage of the compacted soil, which indicates that the dry-wet cycling of compacted soil materials should not be ignored in road engineering, especially in rainy and humid areas.
Hua et al. present the use of four derived acceleration indexes to characterize the soil compaction degree, including the acceleration peak value, acceleration root mean square value (arms), crest factor value, and compaction meter value.
A two-part field compaction test was performed to analyse and judge the test effects of the four indexes on the rockfill and other dam materials.
Gao et al. propose a comprehensive chemical grouting construction technology, which comprises initiative closing, concentrated bypass flow, water plugging priority, and twice sand curing for the inclined shaft passing over the drift-sand layer. &is engineering application effect is very prominent in controlling water burst and leakage at the drift-sand layer, in mine constructions.
Finally, Wang et al. present a finite element analysis and lightweight optimization design of the main frame structure of a large electrostatic precipitator, and Çıra et al. analyse the effects of material properties of marble on surface roughness and glossiness (surface quality).
We hope that readers of this special issue will find not only accurate data and updated reviews on the building technologies and construction materials field area but also important questions to be resolved.
&is special issue includes both theoretical and experimental developments, providing a self-contained major reference that is appealing to both the scientists and the engineers.
At the same time, these topics will encounter a variety of scientific and engineering disciplines, such as chemical, civil, agricultural, and mechanical engineering.
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