Modern Electric Hybrid Electric and Fuel Cell Vehicles 2nd Edition
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Modern Electric Hybrid Electric and Fuel Cell Vehicles 2nd Edition



Modern Electric, Hybrid Electric, and Fuel Cell Vehicles Fundamentals, Theory, and Design, 2nd Edition by Mehrdad Ehsani, Yimin Gao, and Ali Emadi | PDF Free Download.

Authors of Modern Electric Hybrid Electric and Fuel Cell Vehicles PDF


Mehrdad Ehsani received his BS and MS from the University of Texas at Austin in 1973 and 1974, respectively, and his Ph.D. from the University of Wisconsin–Madison in 1981, all in electrical engineering.

From 1974 to 1977 he was with the Fusion Research Center, University of Texas, as a research engineer. From 1977 to 1981 he was with the Argonne National Laboratory, Argonne, Illinois, as a resident research associate, while simultaneously doing the doctoral work at the University of Wisconsin–Madison in energy systems and control systems.

Since 1981 Dr. Ehsani has been at Texas A&M University, College Station, where he is now a professor of electrical engineering and director of the Advanced Vehicle Systems Research Program and the Power Electronics and Motor Drives Laboratory.

He is the recipient of the Prize Paper Awards in Static Power Converters and motor drives at the IEEEIndustryApplications Society 1985, 1987, and 1992 annual meetings, as well as numerous other honors and recognitions.

In 1984, Dr. Ehsani was named the Outstanding Young Engineer of the Year by the Brazos chapter of the Texas Society of Professional Engineers. In 1992, he was named the Halliburton Professor in the College of Engineering at Texas A&M.

In 1994, he was also named the Dresser Industries Professor in the same college. In 2001, he was selected as the Ruth & William Neely/Dow Chemical Faculty Fellow of the College of Engineering for 2001–2002, for “contributions to the Engineering Program at Texas A&M, including classroom instruction, scholarly activities, and professional service.”

In 2003, he received the BP Amoco Faculty Award for Teaching Excellence in the College of Engineering. He was awarded the IEEE Vehicular Society 2001 Avant-Garde Award for “contributions to the theory and design of hybrid electric vehicles.”

In 2003, Dr. Ehsani was awarded the IEEE Undergraduate TeachingAward “for outstanding contributions to advanced curriculum development and teaching of power electronics and drives.”

In 2004, he was elected to the Robert M. Kennedy Endowed Chair in Electrical Engineering at Texas A&M University. In 2005, he was elected as the Fellow of the Society of Automotive Engineers.

Dr. Ehsani is the author of over 300 publications in pulsed-power supplies, high-voltage engineering, power electronics, motor drives, and advanced vehicle systems, and is the co-author of 12 books on power electronics, motor drives, and advanced vehicle systems, including Vehicular Electric Power Systems, Marcel Dekker, Inc.

2003 and Modern Electric Hybrid Vehicles and Fuel Cell Vehicles—Fundamentals, Theory, and Design, CRC Press, 2004.

He has over 23 granted or pending U.S. and EC patients. His current research work is in power electronics, motor drives, hybrid vehicles, and their control systems.

Dr. Ehsani has been a member of the IEEE Power Electronics Society (PELS) AdCom, past chairman of the PELS Educational Affairs Committee, past chairman of the IEEE-IAS Industrial Power Converter Committee, and past chairman of the IEEE Myron Zucker Student-Faculty Grant program.

He was the general chair of the IEEE Power Electronics Specialist Conference for 1990. He is the founder of the IEEE Power and Propulsion Conference, the founding chairman of the IEEE VTS Vehicle Power and Propulsion Committee, and chairman of the Convergence Fellowship Committees. In 2002, he was elected to the board of governors of VTS.

He also serves on the editorial board of several technical journals and is the associate editor of IEEE Transactions on Industrial Electronics and IEEE Transactions on Vehicular Technology.

He is a fellow of IEEE, an IEEE Industrial Electronics Society and Vehicular Technology Society Distinguished Speaker, and an IEEE Industry Applications Society and Power Engineering Society Distinguished Lecturer. He is also a registered professional engineer in the state of Texas.

Yimin Gao received his BS, MS, and Ph.D. in mechanical engineering (major in development, design, and manufacturing of automotive systems) in 1982, 1986, and 1991, respectively, all from Jilin University of Technology, Changchun, Jilin, China.

From 1982 to 1983, he worked as a vehicle design engineer for the Dongfeng Motor Company, Shiyan, Hubei, China. He finished a layout design of a 5-ton truck (EQ144) and participated in prototyping and testing. From 1983 to 1986, he was a graduate student in the Automotive Engineering College of Jilin University of Technology, Changchun, Jilin, China.

His working field was the improvement of vehicle fuel economy by optimal matching of engine and transmission.

From 1987 to 1992, he was a Ph.D. student in the Automotive Engineering College of Jilin University of Technology, Changchun, Jilin, China. During this period, he worked on research and development of legged vehicles, which can potentially operate in harsh environments, where mobility is difficult for wheeled vehicles.

From 1991 to 1995, Dr. Gao was an associate professor and automotive design engineer in the Automotive Engineering College of Jilin University of Technology. During this period, he taught undergraduate students in a course entitled Automotive Theory and Design for several semesters and graduate students in a course entitled Automotive Experiment Technique for two semesters.

Meanwhile, he also conducted vehicle performance, chassis, and components analyses, and conducted automotive design including chassis design, power train design, suspension design, steering system design, and brake design.

Dr. Gao joined the Advanced Vehicle Systems Research Program at Texas A&M University in 1995 as a research associate. Since then, he has been working in this program on research and development of electric and hybrid electric vehicles.

His research areas are mainly on the fundamentals, architecture, control, modeling, and design of electric and hybrid-electric drive trains and major components. He is a member of the Society of Automotive Engineers.

Ali Emadi received his BS and MS in Electrical Engineering with the highest distinction from the Sharif University of Technology, Tehran, Iran. He also received his Ph.D. in Electrical Engineering from Texas A&M University, College Station, Texas.

He is currently the Harris Perlstein Endowed chair professor of Electrical Engineering and the director of the Electric Power and Power Electronics Center and Grainger Laboratories at Illinois Institute of Technology (IIT) in Chicago, where he has established research and teaching facilities as well as courses in power electronics, motor drives, and vehicular power systems.

In addition, Dr. Emadi is the founder, president, and chief technology officer of Hybrid Electric Vehicle Technologies, Inc. (HEVT)—a university spin-off company of IIT.

Dr. Emadi is the recipient of numerous awards and recognitions. He has been named a Chicago Matters Global Visionary in 2009. He was named the Eta Kappa Nu Outstanding Young Electrical Engineer of the Year 2003 (single international award) by virtue of his outstanding contributions to hybrid electric vehicle conversion by the Electrical Engineering Honor Society.

He also received the 2005 Richard M. Bass Outstanding Young Power Electronics Engineer Award from the IEEE Power Electronics Society. In 2005, he was selected as the Best Professor of the Year by the students at IIT.

Dr. Emadi is the recipient of the 2002 University Excellence in Teaching Award from IIT as well as the 2004 Sigma Xi/IIT Award for Excellence in University Research. He directed a team of students to design and build a novel motor drive, which won the First Place Overall Award of the 2003 IEEE/DOE/DOD International Future Energy Challenge for Motor Competition.

Dr. Emadi is the principal author and co-author of over 250 journals and conference papers as well as several books including Vehicular Electric Power Systems: Land, Sea, Air, and Space Vehicles, Marcel Dekker, 2003; Energy Efficient Electric Motors, Marcel Dekker, 2004; Uninterruptible Power Supplies and Active Filters, CRC Press, 2004; Modern Electric, Hybrid Electric, and Fuel Cell Vehicles: Fundamentals,

Theory, and Design, CRC Press, 2004; and Integrated Power Electronic Converters and Digital Control, CRC Press, 2009. Dr. Emadi is also the editor of the Handbook of Automotive Power Electronics and Motor Drives, Marcel Dekker, 2005.

Dr. Emadi was the founding general chair of the 1st IEEE Vehicle Power and Propulsion Conference (VPPC’05), which was colocated under his chairmanship with the SAE International Future Transportation Technology Conference.

He is currently the chair of the IEEE Vehicle Power and Propulsion Steering Committee, chair of the Technical Committee on Transportation Power Electronics of the IEEE Power Electronics Society, and Chair of the Power Electronics Technical Committee of the IEEE Industrial Electronics Society. He has also served as the Chair of the 2007 IEEE International Future Energy Challenge.

Dr. Emadi is the editor (North America) of the International Journal of Electric and Hybrid Vehicles. He has been the guest editor-in-chief of the Special Issue on Automotive Power Electronics and Motor Drives, IEEE Transactions on Power Electronics.

He has also been the guest editor of the Special Section on Hybrid Electric and Fuel Cell Vehicles, IEEE Transactions on Vehicular Technology, and guest editor of the Special Section on Automotive Electronics and Electrical Drives, IEEE Transactions on Industrial Electronics.

He has served as an associate editor of the IEEE Transactions on Vehicular Technology, IEEE Transactions on Power Electronics, and IEEE Transactions on Industrial Electronics.

Modern Hybrid Electric Fuel Cell Vehicles Contents


  • Environmental Impact and History of Modern Transportation
  • Fundamentals of Vehicle Propulsion and Brake 
  • Internal Combustion Engines
  • Electric Vehicles
  • Hybrid Electric Vehicles
  • Electric Propulsion Systems
  • Design Principle of Series (Electrical Coupling) Hybrid Electric Drive Train
  • Parallel (Mechanically Coupled) Hybrid Electric Drive Train Design
  • Design and Control Methodology of Series-Parallel (Torque and Speed Coupling) Hybrid Drive Train
  •  Design and Control Principles of Plug-In Hybrid Electric Vehicles
  •  Mild Hybrid Electric Drive Train Design 
  • Peaking Power Sources and Energy Storages
  •  Fundamentals of Regenerative Breaking
  • Fuel Cells
  • Fuel Cell Hybrid Electric Drive Train Design
  • Design of Series Hybrid Drive Train for Off-Road Vehicles

Preface to Modern Electric Hybrid Electric and Fuel Cell Vehicles eBook


The development of internal combustion engine automobiles is one of the greatest achievements of modern technology.

However, the highly developed automotive industry and the increasingly large number of automobiles in use around the world are causing serious problems for the environment and hydrocarbon resources.

The deteriorating air quality, global warming issues, and depleting petroleum resources are becoming serious threats to modern life. Progressively more rigorous emissions and fuel efficiency standards are stimulating the aggressive development of safer, cleaner, and more efficient vehicles.

It is now well recognized that electric, hybrid electric, and fuel-cell-powered drive train technologies are the most promising vehicle solutions for the foreseeable future.

To meet this challenge, an increasing number of engineering schools, in the United States and around the world, have initiated academic programs in advanced energy and vehicle technologies at the undergraduate and graduate levels.

We started our first graduate course, in 1998, on “Advanced Vehicle Technologies—Design Methodology of Electric and Hybrid Electric Vehicles” for students in mechanical and electrical engineering at Texas A&M University.

While preparing the lectures for this course, we found that although there is a wealth of information in the form of technical papers and reports, there was no rigorous and comprehensive textbook for students and professors who may wish to offer such a course.

Furthermore, practicing engineers also needed a systematic reference book to fully understand the essentials of this new technology. The first edition of this book was our attempt to fill this need.

The second edition introduces newer topics and deeper treatments than the first edition. The book deals with the fundamentals, theoretical bases, and design methodologies of conventional internal combustion engine (ICE) vehicles, electric vehicles (EVs), hybrid electric vehicles (HEVs), and fuel cell vehicles (FCVs).

It comprehensively covers vehicle performance characteristics, configurations, control strategies, design methodologies, modeling, and simulations for modern vehicles with mathematical rigor.

It includes drive train architecture analysis, ICE-based drive trains, EV and HEV configurations, electric propulsion systems, series/parallel/mild hybrid electric drive train design methodologies, energy storage systems, regenerative braking, fuel cells and their applications in vehicles, and fuel cell hybrid electric drive train design.

The book’s perspective is from the overall drive train system and not just individual components. The design methodology is described in mathematical terms, step by step.

Furthermore, in explaining the design methodology of each drive train, design examples are presented with simulation results. More specifically, the second edition contains many corrections and updates of the material in the first edition.

Three new chapters and one appendix have been added. They are Chapter 9: Design and Control Methodology of Series-Parallel (Torque and Speed Coupling) Hybrid Drive Train; Chapter 10: Design and Control Principles of Plug-In Hybrid Electric Vehicles;

Chapter 16: Design of Series Hybrid Drive Train for Off-Road Vehicles, and Appendix: Technical Overview of Toyota Prius. Chapter 13: Fundamentals of Regenerative Braking has been completely rewritten, based on our new research.

In addition, plenty of new materials have been added to the old chapters. All these new contributions to the second edition make it more complete and useful to the reader. This book consists of 16 chapters and one appendix.

In Chapter 1, the social and environmental importance of modern transportation is discussed. This mainly includes air pollution, global warming, and petroleum resource depletion issues associated with the development of modern transportation.

In this chapter, the impact of future vehicle technologies on oil supplies is analyzed. The results are helpful for the development strategies of the next generation of vehicles. In addition, the development history of EVs, HEVs, and FCVs is briefly reviewed.

In Chapter 2, basic understandings of vehicle performance, power plant characteristics, transmission characteristics, and the equations used to describe vehicle performance are introduced.

The main purpose of this chapter is to provide the basic knowledge that is necessary for vehicle drive train design.

As an improvement to the first edition, the material on the brake system and its design and performance have been strengthened in order to provide a more solid base for the hybrid brake system designs in EVs, HEVs, and FCVs. In Chapter 3, the major operating characteristics of different heat engines are introduced.

As the primary power plant, the engine is the most important subsystem in conventional and hybrid drive train systems. A full understanding of the characteristics of the engine is necessary for the design and control of conventional as well as HEVs.

In Chapter 4, EVs are introduced. This chapter mainly includes the design of the electric propulsion system and its energy storage device, the design of the traction motor and its transmission, methodology of prediction of vehicle performance, and system simulation results. In Chapter 5, the basic concept of hybrid traction is established first.

Then, various configurations of HEVs are discussed. These include series hybrid, parallel hybrid, torque-coupling, and speed-coupling hybrids, and other configurations.

The main operating characteristics of these configurations are also presented. In Chapter 6, several electric power plants are introduced. These include DC, AC, permanent magnet brushless DC, and switched reluctance motor drives.

Their basic structure, operating principles, control, and operational characteristics are described from a traction system point of view. In Chapter 7, the design methodology of the series hybrid electric drive trains is presented.

This chapter focuses on the system-oriented design of the engine and the energy storage, the traction motor, the transmission, the control strategy, and the power converters.

A design example is also provided. As an improvement to the first edition, various power converter configurations have been added. In Chapter 8, a design methodology of parallel hybrid electric drive trains is provided.

This chapter includes driving patterns and driving mode analysis; control strategy; design of the major components, for example, the engine, the energy storage, and the transmission; and vehicle performance simulation.

In addition to the material covered in the first edition, a constrained engine on and off control strategy, fuzzy logic control strategy, and the concept of control optimization based on dynamic programming have been added.

In Chapter 9, the operating characteristics, design methodology, and control strategies of a series-parallel hybrid drive train are presented. This is a new chapter in the second edition. In Chapter 10, the design and control principles of the plug-in hybrid vehicle are introduced.

This chapter mainly addresses the charge sustaining hybrid drive train with regard to the drive train control strategy, energy storage design, and electric motor design.

This is also a new chapter. In Chapter 11, a design methodology of mild hybrid drive trains is introduced with two major configurations of parallel torque coupling and series-parallel, torque-speed coupling.

This chapter focuses on operational analysis, control system development, and system simulation. In Chapter 12, different energy storage technologies are introduced, including batteries, ultracapacitors, and flywheels.

The discussion focuses on power and energy capacities. The concept of hybrid energy storage is also introduced in this chapter. In Chapter 13, the design and control principles of hybrid brake systems are introduced.

Brake safety and recoverable energy are the main concerns. The available braking energy characteristics, with regard to vehicle speed, and the braking power in typical driving cycles are investigated.

The brake force distribution on the front and rear wheels are discussed for guaranteeing the vehicle braking performance for safety.

Furthermore, this chapter discusses the important issue of distributing the total braking force between the mechanical and the electrical regenerative brakes.

Two advanced hybrid brake systems, including their control strategies, are introduced. This chapter has been rewritten based on our recent research.

In Chapter 14, different fuel cell systems are described, with a focus on their operating principles and characteristics, various technologies, and their fuels. Specifically, vehicle applications of fuel cells are explained. In Chapter 15, a systematic design of fuel cell hybrid drive trains is introduced. First, the concept of fuel cell hybrid vehicles is established.

Then, their operating principles and drive train control systems are analyzed. Lastly, a design methodology is provided, focusing on the system designs of the fuel cell, the electric propulsion system, and the energy storage system.

A design example and its corresponding performance simulation results are provided. In Chapter 16, a design methodology of an off-road tracked series hybrid vehicle is developed.

The discussion focuses on the motion resistance calculation on soft grounds, traction motor system design, the engine/generator system design, and the peaking power source system design. This is a new chapter for the second edition.

A case study appendix has been added to the second edition. This is an overview of the Toyota Prius hybrid system.

The purpose is to give the reader a practical example of the architecture, operational modes, control system, among other things, of a commercial hybrid electric drive train.

This book is suitable for a graduate or senior-level undergraduate course in advanced vehicles. Depending on the backgrounds of the students in different disciplines such as mechanical or electrical engineering, course instructors have the flexibility of choosing the specialized material to suit their lectures.

This text has been used at Texas A&M University in a graduate-level course for many years. The manuscript of this text has been revised many times and over many years, based on the comments and feedback from the students in our course.

We are grateful to our students for their help. This book is also an in-depth resource and a comprehensive reference in modern automotive systems for engineers, students, researchers, and other professionals who are working in automotive-related industries, as well as those in government and academia.

In addition to the work by others, many of the technologies and advances presented in this book are the collection of many years of research and development by the authors and other members of the Advanced Vehicle Systems Research Program at Texas A&M University.

We are grateful to all the dedicated staff of the Advanced Vehicle Systems Research group and the Power Electronics and Motor Drives group at Texas A&M, who made great contributions to this book.

We would also like to express our sincere thanks to Mr. Glenn C. Krell, whose proofreading and corrections have improved this text.

In addition, we would like to acknowledge the efforts and assistance of the staff of CRC Press, LLC, especially Ms. Nora Konopka. Last but not least, we thank our families for their patience and support during the long effort in the writing of this book.

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