Fundamentals and Applications of Lithium-Ion Batteries
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Fundamentals and Applications of Lithium-Ion Batteries

Fundamentals and Applications of Lithium-Ion Batteries in Electric Drive Vehicles by Jiuchun Jiang and Caiping Zhang | PDF Free Download.

Authors of Fundamentals and Applications of Lithium-Ion Batteries

Professor Jiuchun Jiang is the Dean of the School of Electrical Engineering at the Beijing Jiaotong University, China. He has more than 17 years of research experience in renewable energy technology, management of advanced batteries, and EV infrastructural facilities.

He has more than 50 publications and holds 8 patents. His research has contributed to the commercial battery management system (BMS) products.

The developed BMS products ranked first in the domestic market in the last three years. He has also designed a number of large scale battery charging stations, such as for the Beijing Olympic Games, the Shanghai World Expo, and the Guangzhou Asian Games.

He was the winner of the China National Science and Technology Progress Award and Ministry of Education Science and Technology Progress Award.

Caiping Zhang is an associate professor with the National Active Distribution Network Technology Research Center, School of Electrical Engineering, Beijing Jiaotong University.

She has more than 10 years of research experience in the field of battery modeling and simulation, states estimation, battery charging, and battery control and optimization in electric vehicles.

She also does research on the reuse technology of EV used batteries and battery energy storage systems. She has had more than 20 publications in the last five years.

Lithium-Ion Batteries Contents

  • Introduction
  • Performance Modeling of Lithium-ion Batteries
  • Battery State Estimation
  • The Prediction of Battery Pack Peak Power
  • Charging Control Technologies for Lithium-ion Batteries
  • Evaluation and Equalization of Battery Consistency
  • Technologies for the Design and Application of the Battery Management System

Preface to Fundamentals and Applications of Lithium-Ion Batteries

The power battery is the main power source for electric vehicles; its performance has a vital influence on the safety, efficiency, and economy of electric vehicle operations.

Currently, power batteries for electric vehicles mainly include lead-acid, nickel-cadmium, nickel-metal hydride, and lithium-ion batteries.

For a long time, the lead-acid battery was widely used because of its mature technology, stable performance, and low price. However, its disadvantages of low energy density, long charging time, short life, and lead contamination limit its usefulness in electric vehicles.

The nickel-cadmium battery has been used for its large charge-discharge rate; however, its disadvantages of memory effect and heavy metal contamination cannot be solved.

Nickel-metal hydride batteries have been widely applied in hybrid cars for their large charge-discharge rate and they are environmentally friendly. However, their single-cell voltage is low and they should not be connected in parallel, restricting their application in electric vehicles.

The lithium-ion batteries are widely accepted because of their high voltage platform, high energy density, good cycle performance, and low self-discharge, and are regarded as a good choice for the new generation of power batteries.

The lithium-ion battery cathode material can be lithium cobalt oxide, manganese oxide, lithium iron phosphate, nickel manganese cobalt oxide, lithium nickel cobalt aluminum oxide, and so on.

Currently, one of the key factors restricting the development of electric vehicles is that the battery power is not satisfactory; the battery specific energy, specific power, consistency, longevity, and price are not as good as expected.

A battery acts as a power system that converts electrical energy and chemical energy. Its operation is very complex because the reactions are related to temperature, accumulated charge-discharge, charge-discharge rate, and other factors.

The battery management system (BMS) protection mainly ensures that the battery works within reasonable parameters. It detects voltage, current, and temperature of the battery pack and relays this information.

It carries out thermal management, balancing control, charge and discharge control, fault diagnosis, and CAN communication. It also estimates the SOC and SOH at the same time.

The BMS needs people who are familiar with both the electrochemical properties of the battery and its electrical applications. It is necessary to write an instruction book since there are not many people with this compound knowledge.

This book provides basic theoretical knowledge and practical resource materials to researchers engaged in electric vehicles and lithium-ion battery development and design, and people who work on the battery management system.

In this book, we discuss key technologies and research methods for the lithium-ion power battery management system, and the difficulties encountered with it in electric vehicles.

The contents include lithium-ion battery performance modeling and simulation; the theory and methods of estimation of the lithium-ion battery state of charge, state of energy, and peak power; lithium-ion battery charge and discharge control technology; consistent evaluation and equalization techniques of the battery pack; and battery management system design and application in electric vehicles.

This book focuses on systematically expounding the theoretical connotation and practical application of the lithium-ion battery management systems. Part of the content of the book is directly derived from real vehicle tests.

Through a comparative analysis of the different system structures, the related concepts are made clear and understanding of the battery management system is deepened.

In order to strengthen the understanding, the book makes a deep analysis of some important concepts.

Using simulation technology combined with schematic diagrams, it gives a vivid description and detailed analysis of the basic concepts, the estimation methods, and the battery charge and discharge control principles, therefore the descriptions are intuitive and vivid, readers can have a clear understanding of the principle of battery management system technology and, combined with case analysis, the readers’ perceptual knowledge is enhanced. The contents are summarized as follows:

Chapter 1 is an introduction, which presents the terms, types, and characteristics of the power battery, and the functions and key technologies of the battery management system.

Chapter 2 introduces the operating principle, charge and discharge characteristics, model classification and characteristics of the lithium-ion battery, and performance simulation of the equivalent circuit model.

Chapter 3 introduces the definition and estimation methods for battery SOC and SOE.

Chapter 4 introduces the definition and test methods of battery peak power, and the determination of available power for a battery pack.

Chapter 5 introduces lithium-ion battery optimization charging methods, taking charge life and charge time together into account, and expounds battery discharge control technology combined with vehicle operational states, battery SOE, and SOC.

Chapter 6 introduces the reasons for the inconsistency of a battery pack and battery consistency evaluation parameter indexes and describes the battery equalization method and strategy.

Chapter 7 introduces the structure of the BMS, the battery parameter collection scheme, logical control and security alarm theory of BMS, and BMS application analysis in electric vehicles.

This book is a group achievement of the faculties and Ph.D. students of the National Active Distribution Network Technology Research Center (NANTES), Beijing Jiaotong University (BJTU). The book benefits from their hard work in the field of electric vehicle battery management, and tireless efforts to provide the most advanced knowledge and technology over the decades.

The faculties involved in the preparation are Weight Zhang, Zhanguo Wang, Mining Gong, Bingxiang Sun, Wei Shi, Feng Wen, Jiapeng Wen, Hongyu Guo, and so on. The students involved are Zeyu Ma, Dafen Chen, Xue Li, Fangdan Zheng, Yanru Zhang, and so on. We would like to express our sincere thanks to them all!

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