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Ergonomics in the Automotive Design Process Vivek D. Bhise | PDF Free Download.
Vivek D. Bhise is currently visiting professor and professor in the postretirement of Industrial and Manufacturing Systems Engineering at the University of Michigan–Dearborn.
He received his BTech in Mechanical Engineering (1965) from the Indian Institute of Technology, Bombay, India, MS in Industrial Engineering (1966) from the University of California, Berkeley, California, and Ph.D. in Industrial and Systems Engineering (1971) from the Ohio State University, Columbus, Ohio.
From 1973 to 2001, he held a number of management and research positions at the Ford Motor Company in Dearborn, Michigan.
He was the manager of Consumer Ergonomics Strategy and Technology within the Corporate Quality Office and the manager of the Human Factors Engineering and Ergonomics in the Corporate Design of the Ford Motor Company, where he was responsible for the ergonomics attribute in the design of car and truck products.
Dr. Bhise has taught graduate courses in vehicle ergonomics, vehicle package engineering, automotive systems engineering, human factors engineering, total quality management and Six Sigma, product design, and evaluations
And safety engineering over the past 30 years (1980–2001 as an adjunct professor and 2001–2009 as a professor) at the University of Michigan-Dearborn.
He also worked on a number of research projects on human factors with Professor Thomas Rockwell at the Driving Research Laboratory at the Ohio State University (1968–1973).
His publications include more than 100 technical papers in the design and evaluation of automotive interiors, vehicle lighting systems, field of view from vehicles, and modeling of human performance in different driver/ user tasks.
He received the Human Factors Society’s A. R. Lauer Award for outstanding contributions to the understanding of driver behavior in 1987.
He has served on a number of committees of the Society of Automotive Engineers Inc., Vehicle Manufacturers Association, Human Factors Society, and Transportation Research Board of the National Academies.
He is a member of the Human Factors and Ergonomics Society, the Society of Automotive Engineers Inc., and Alpha Pi Mu.
PART I Ergonomics Concepts, Issues, and Methods in Vehicle Design
PART II Advanced Topics, Measurements, Modeling, and Research
The purpose of this book is to provide a thorough understanding of ergonomic issues and to provide background information, principles, design guidelines, and tools and methods used in designing and evaluating automotive products.
This book has been written to satisfy the needs of both students and professionals who are genuinely interested in improving the usability of automotive products.
Undergraduate and graduate students in engineering and industrial design will gain an understand- ing of the ergonomics engineer’s work and the complex coordination and teamwork of many professionals in the automotive product development process.
Students will learn the importance of timely information and recommendations provided by the ergonomics engineers and the methods and tools that are available to improve user acceptance.
The professionals in the industry will realize that the days of considering ergonomics as a “commonsense” science and simply “winging-in” quick fixes to achieve user-friendliness are over. The auto industry is facing tough competition and severe economic constraints.
Their products need to be designed “right the first time” with the right combinations of features that not only satisfy the customers but continually please and delight them by providing increased functionality, comfort, convenience, safety, and craftsmanship.
The book is based on my more than 40 years of experience as a human factors researcher, engineer, manager, and teacher who has performed numerous studies and analyses designed to provide answers to designers, engineers, and managers involved in designing car and truck products, primarily for the markets in the United States and Europe.
The book is not like many ergonomics textbooks that compile a lot of information from a large number of references reported in the human factors and ergonomics literature.
I have included only the topics and materials that I found to be useful in designing car and truck products, and I concentrated on the ergonomic issues generally discussed in the automotive design studios and product development teams.
The book is really about what an ergonomics engineer should know and do after he or she becomes a member of an automotive product development team and is asked to create an ergonomically superior vehicle.
The book begins with the definitions and goals of ergonomics, historic background, and ergonomics approaches. It covers important human characteristics, capabilities, and limitations considered in vehicle design in key areas such as anthropometry, biomechanics, and human information processing.
Next, the reader is led in understanding how the driver and the occupants are positioned in the vehicle space and how to package drawings and/or computer-aided design models are created from key vehicle dimensions used in the automobile industry.
Various design tools used in the industry for occupant packaging, driver vision, and applications of other psychophysical methods are described.
The book covers important driver information processing concepts and models and driver error categories to understand key considerations and principles used in designing controls, displays, and their usages, including current issues related to driver workload and driver distractions.
A vehicle’s interior dimensions are related to its exterior dimensions in terms of the required fields of view from the driver’s eye points through various window openings and other indirect vision devices (e.g., mirrors, cameras).
Various field-of-view measurements, analysis techniques, visibility requirements, and design areas such as windshield wiper zones, obscurations caused by car pillars, and the required indirect fields of views are described along with many trade-off considerations.
To understand the basics of headlamp beam pattern design and signal lighting performance and their photometric requirements, human factor considerations and night visibility issues are presented.
Other customers/user concerns and comfort issues related to entering and exiting the vehicle, seating, loading, and unloading cargo, and other service-related issues (engine and trunk compartment, refueling the vehicle, etc.) are covered.
They provide insights into user considerations in designing vehicle body and mechanical packaging in terms of important vehicle dimensions related to body/door openings, roof, rocker panels, and clearances for the user’s hands, legs, feet, torso, head, and so on.
A chapter on craftsmanship covers a relatively new technical and increasingly important area for ergonomics engineers.
The whole idea behind craftsmanship is that the vehicle should be designed and built such that the customers will perceive the vehicle to be built with a lot of attention to details by craftsmen who apply their skills to enhance the pleasing perceptual characteristics of the product related to its appearance, touch, feel, sounds, and ease during operations.
Several examples of research studies on the measurement of craftsmanship and relating product perception measures to physical characteristics of interior materials are presented.
In addition, for researchers, the second part of the book includes chapters on driver behavioral and performance measurement, vehicle evaluation methods, modeling of driver vision (which illustrates how the target detection distances and legibility of displays can be predicted to evaluate vehicle lighting and display systems), and driver workload to evaluate in-vehicle devices.
Discussions on ergonomic issues for the development of new technological features in areas such as telematics, night vision, and other driver-safety- and comfort-related devices are included.
The second part of the book also presents data and discusses many issues associated with designing for different population segments, such as older drivers, women drivers, and drivers in different geographic parts of the world.
Finally, the last chapter is focused on various issues related to future research needs in several specialized areas of ergonomics as well as vehicle systems and on implementation of available ergonomic design guidelines and tools at different stages of the automotive product design process.
The book can be used to form the basis of two courses in vehicle ergonomics. The first course would cover the basic ergonomic considerations needed in designing and evaluating vehicles that are included in Part I—the first eleven chapters of this book.
The remaining chapters covered in Part II can be used for an advanced and more research-oriented course.
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