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Automobile Automation Distributed Cognition on the Road by Victoria A. Banks and Neville A. Stanton | PDF Free Download.
Dr. Victoria A. Banks is a postgraduate research fellow in the Human Factors Engineering Team, which is part of the Transportation Research Group at the University of Southampton.
She was recently awarded her Engineering Doctorate by the University of Southampton in 2016 and also holds a BSc Psychology (Hons) award. Her research interests include modeling, analyzing, and evaluating the Human Factors implications of increasing levels of autonomy on driver behavior.
She has published over 10 articles related to the field of automobile automation and, in 2014, Dr. Banks was invited to speak at the Transport Select Committee Event at Southampton University, from which she was invited to write an article for ITS International.
Dr. Banks has previously worked with one of the largest vehicle manufacturers in the United Kingdom and was involved with the design and development of future automated technologies.
Professor Neville A. Stanton, Ph.D., DSc, is a chartered psychologist, chartered ergonomist, and chartered engineer.
He holds the Chair in Human Factors Engineering in the Faculty of Engineering and the Environment at the University of Southampton in the United Kingdom.
He has degrees in Occupational Psychology, Applied Psychology, and Human Factors Engineering and has worked at the Universities of Aston, Brunel, Cornell, and MIT.
His research interests include modeling, predicting, analyzing, and evaluating human performance in systems as well as designing the interfaces and interaction between humans and technology.
Professor Stanton has worked on the design of automobiles, aircraft, ships, and control rooms over the past 30 years, on a variety of automation projects.
He has published 35 books and over 270 journal papers on Ergonomics and Human Factors. In 1998, he was presented with the Institution of Electrical Engineers Divisional Premium Award for research into System Safety.
The Institute of Ergonomics and Human Factors in the United Kingdom awarded him The Otto Edholm Medal in 2001, The President’s Medal in 2008, and The Sir Frederic Bartlett Medal in 2012 were awarded for his contributions to basic and applied ergonomics research.
The Royal Aeronautical Society awarded him and his colleagues the Hodgson Prize in 2006 for research on design-induced, flight-deck, error published in The Aeronautical Journal.
The University of Southampton awarded him a Doctor of Science in 2014 for his sustained contribution to the development and validation of Human Factors methods.
This book came about through our work on applying the ideas of Distributed Cognition to automobile automation. We have shown that some of the cognitive functions traditionally performed by the human driver of manually controlled vehicles are going to be performed by automation.
The dynamic nature of driving means that cognitive functions (such as Monitor, Anticipate, Detect, Recognise, Decide, Select and Respond) change momentarily, in light of changes in the task, environment, and interactions with other road users.
In our research, we have shown how these cognitive functions may be allocated, dynamically, to different agents in the vehicle (both human and technological).
We have undertaken both modeling and empirical work in a cycle of model-test-model in order to predict the performance of automated systems and validate the modeling work.
To this end, we have used a variety of Human Factors methods to show how the driver may be incorporated into the engineering analysis of future technologies.
We are extremely grateful to our colleagues at Jaguar Land Rover, who have presented us with the design challenges and facilitated the simulator, test-track, and on-road studies. The insights they have provided us with future automotive systems have been invaluable.
This book may be used in several ways. As a primer for the Human Factors issues in automobile automation, it can bring the reader up-to-speed on the issues and approaches, as well as providing empirical evidence on the range of behaviors in automated vehicles.
The book also presents methods that can be used in the different stages of design, from formative approaches for modeling initial concepts to summative approaches for evaluation of technologies in simulators, on test-tracks, and on the road.
For the researcher, we offer studies, concepts, and ideas to stimulate further work. For the practitioner, we offer a review of the field, data from studies, and indications of where the future lies. We have performed one of the first-ever studies of vehicle automation on the road, looking at driver behavior with a lane change system.
Our pedigree of conducting research into vehicle automation goes back to the early 1990s when Neville was one of the very few researchers undertaking studies into vehicle automation.
There can be no doubt that road vehicle automation will be a common feature very soon. Tesla’s autopilot system offers early insight into the ways in which it can be deployed.
Certainly, the Tesla system has stimulated technological progress. BMW, Jaguar, Mercedes, Volvo, and other vehicle manufacturers are not far behind. Predictions about other companies' product launches are being made for around 2020.
We hope our book helps designers and engineers consider the role of the driver in the future of vehicle automation.
We have expressed concerns about bringing the driver back into the vehicle control loop in a controlled manner, by ensuring the driver has timely and salient information when in supervisory mode.
We have also extended our work to consider the macro-level transport system concerns of mixed levels of automation on the road. All of these issues need to be resolved if vehicle automation is to contribute to road safety in the future.
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