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RF and Microwave Power Amplifier Design 2nd Edition by Andrei Grebennikov | PDF Free Download.
The main objective of this book is to present all relevant information required for RF and microwave power amplifier design, including well-known historical and recent novel schematic configuration, theoretical approaches, circuit simulation results, and practical implementation techniques.
This comprehensive book can be very useful for lecturing to promote the systematic way of thinking with analytical calculations, circuit simulation, and practical verification, thus making a bridge between theory and practice of RF and microwave engineering.
As it often happens, a new result is the well-forgotten old one. Therefore, the demonstration of not only new results based on new technologies or circuit schematics is given, but some sufficiently old ideas or approaches are also introduced that could be very useful in modern design practice or could contribute to the appearance of new general architectural ideas and specific circuit design techniques.
As a result, this book is intended for and can be recommended to university-level professors as comprehensive reference material to help in lecturing for graduates and postgraduates students,
to researchers and scientists to combine the theoretical analysis with practical design and to provide a sufficient basis for innovative ideas and circuit design techniques, and to practicing designers and engineers as the book contains numerous well-known and novel practical circuits, architectures, and theoretical approaches with a detailed description of their operational principles and applications.
In Chap. 1, the two-port networks are introduced to describe the behavior of linear and nonlinear circuits. To characterize the nonlinear properties of the bipolar or field-effect transistors, their equivalent circuit elements are expressed through the impedance Z-parameters, admittance Y-parameters, or hybrid H parameters.
On the other hand, the transmission ABCD-parameters are very important in the design of the distributed circuits such as a transmission line or cascaded elements, whereas the scattering S-parameters are widely used to simplify a measurement procedure.
The main purpose of Chap. 2 is to present widely used nonlinear circuit design techniques to analyze nonlinear power amplifier circuits. In general, there are several approaches to analyze and design these nonlinear circuits, depending on their main specifications,
for example, an analysis in the time domain when it is necessary to determine the transient circuit behavior, or in the frequency domain to provide an improvement of the power and spectral performances when such parasitic effects as instability and spurious emissions must be eliminated or minimized.
By using the time-domain technique, it is quite easy to describe the circuit by differential equations, whereas the frequency-domain analysis is more explicit when a relatively complex circuit can be reduced to one or more sets of immittances at each harmonic component.
The dynamic X-parameters are introduced as a novel way to build behavioral models for power amplifiers that include long-term memory effects.
In Chap. 3, all necessary steps to provide an accurate device modeling procedure starting with the determination of the device small-signal equivalent circuit parameters are described and discussed.
A variety of nonlinear models for MOSFET, MESFET, HEMT, and bipolar devices including HBTs, which are very prospective for modern microwave monolithic integrated circuits of power amplifiers,
are presented. In order to highlight the advantages or drawbacks of one nonlinear device model over the other, a comparison of the measured and modeled voltage-current and voltage-capacitance characteristics and a frequency range of model applications are provided.
A concept of the impedance matching and impedance-matching technique, which is very important when designing power amplifiers, is described and presented in Chap. 4.
First, the main principles and impedance-matching tools such as the Smith chart are described, providing a starting point of the matching design procedure.
As an engineering solution, in general, depends on the different circuit requirements, the designer should choose the optimum solution among a variety of the matching networks, including either lumped elements and transmission lines or both of them.
To simplify and visualize the matching design procedure, an analytical approach, which allows the parameters of the matching circuits using simple equations to be calculated, and the Smith chart traces are discussed and illustrated with several examples of the narrowband and broadband RF and microwave power amplifiers using bipolar or MOSFET devices.
Finally, design formulas and curves are given for several types of transmission lines, such as stripline, microstrip line, lot line, and coplanar waveguide.
Chapter 5 describes the basic properties of three-and four-port networks, as well as a variety of different power combiners, impedance transformers, and directional couplers for RF and microwave power amplifier applications.
Therefore, for power combining in view of insufficient power performance of the active devices, it is best to use the coaxial cable combiners with a ferrite core to combine the output powers of RF power amplifiers intended for wideband applications.
As the device output impedance for high output power levels is usually too small, to match this impedance with a standard 50-Ω load, it is necessary to use the coaxial cable transformers with specified impedance transformation. For narrowband applications,
the N-way Wilkinson combiners are widely used due to the simplicity of their practical realization. Because the size of the power combiners should be very small at microwave frequencies, the commonly used hybrid microstrip combiners including different types of microwave hybrids and directional couplers are described and analyzed.
Chapter 6 represents the fundamentals of the power amplifier design, which is generally a complicated procedure when it is necessary to provide simultaneously accurate active device modeling, effective impedance matching depending on the technical requirements and operation conditions, stability in operation, and ease in practical implementation.
Therefore, initially, the key definitions of different power gains and stability are introduced. For a stable operation of the power amplifier, it is necessary to evaluate the frequency domains where the active device may be potentially unstable.
To avoid parasitic oscillations, the stabilization circuit technique for different frequency domains from low frequencies to high frequencies close to the device transition frequency is analyzed and discussed.
One of the key parameters of the power amplifier is its linearity, which is very important for many TV and cellular applications.
Therefore, the relationships between the output power, 1-dB gain compression point, third-order intercept point, and third-and higher-order intermodulation distortions are given and illustrated for different active devices.
The basic classes of the power amplifier operation, namely Classes A, AB, B, and C, are introduced, analyzed, and illustrated. The device biasing conditions and examples of the bias circuits for MOSFET and bipolar devices to improve linearity or to increase efficiency are shown and discussed.
Also, the concept of push-pull amplifiers and their circuit design using balanced transistors is given. In a final section, the several practical examples of power amplifiers using MOSFET, MESFET, and bipolar devices in the different frequency ranges and for different output powers are shown and discussed.
Modern commercial and military communication systems require high efficiency in long-term operating conditions.
Chapter 7 describes in detail the possible load-network solutions to provide a high-efficiency power amplifier operation based on using overdriven Class-B, Class-F, inverse Class-F, and Class-E operation modes depending on the technical requirements.
In Class-F power amplifiers analyzed in the frequency domain, the fundamental and harmonic load impedances are optimized by short-circuiting termination and open-circuit peaking to control the voltage and current waveforms at the drain of the device to obtain maximum efficiency.
In Class-E power amplifiers analyzed in the time domain, an efficiency improvement is achieved by realizing the on/off switching operation with special current and voltage waveforms so that high voltage and high current do not exist at the same time.
In many telecommunications, radar, or testing systems, the transmitters operate in a very wide frequency range.
Chapter 8 describes the power amplifier design based on a broadband concept that provides some advantages when there is no need to tune the resonant-circuit parameters.
However, there are many factors that restrict the frequency bandwidth depending on the active device parameters.
As a result, it is sufficiently easy to provide multioctave amplification from very low frequencies up to ultrahigh frequencies using the power MOSFET devices when lossy gain compensation is provided.
At higher frequencies when the device input impedance is significantly smaller and the influence of its internal feedback and parasitic parameters is substantially higher, it is necessary to use multisection matching networks with lumped and distributed elements.
As an alternative, the parallel-circuit Class-E load-network configuration can be easily implemented in the broadband high-efficiency power amplifier design.
A variety of broadband power amplifiers using in different frequency ranges are presented and described. In modern telecommunication systems, it is very important to realize both high-efficiency and linear operation of the power amplifiers.
Chapter 9 describes a variety of techniques and approaches that can improve power amplifier performance.
To increase efficiency over power backoff range, the out phasing and envelope-tracking power amplifier architectures, as well as the switched path and variable-load power amplifier configurations are discussed and analyzed.
To improve the linearity of the operation, the feedforward linearizing technique and different types of distortion linearization circuit schematics are demonstrated and explained.
Finally, the design and implementation of the monolithic integrated circuits of the high-efficiency GaAs HBT and CMOS power amplifiers for handset application are shown and described.
Chapter 10 describes the historical aspect of the Doherty approach to the power amplifier design and modern trends in Doherty amplifier design techniques using multistage and asymmetric multiway architectures.
To increase efficiency over the power-backoff range, the switchmode Class-E, conventional Class-F, or inverse Class-F operation mode by controlling the second and third harmonics can be used in the road network.
The Doherty amplifier with a series-connected load and inverted Doherty architectures are also described and discussed.
Finally, examples of the lumped Doherty amplifier implemented in monolithic microwave integrated circuits, digitally-driven Doherty technique, and broadband capability of the two-stage Doherty amplifier are given.
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